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Children of the Revolution: Fetal and Child Health amidst Violent Civil Conflict

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  • Valente, C

Abstract

This paper considers the impact of exposure to violent conflict in utero, and after birth, on a range of fetal and child health inputs and outcomes, using the Maoist insurgency that a ected Nepal between 1996 and 2006 as a case study. Conflict intensity is measured by the number of conflict deaths by district and month and merged with pregnancy histories from the 2001 and 2006 Demographic and Health Surveys. Maternal mixed-effects estimation allows me to control for-, and shed light on- selection into becoming pregnant and giving birth at times of more intense conflict. Exposure to conflict in the rst few years of life has an adverse effect on child nutritional status. However, exposure to conflict in utero has both scarring and selection effects on survivors. As conflict intensity increases, the likelihood of miscarriage increases, and so a smaller share of the frailer fetuses is carried to term. This selection effect tends to dominate in the second trimester of pregnancy, whilst scarring effects are stronger in the third trimester. Use of health care such as antenatal care, (medical) help with delivery, and immunization do not appear to decrease when conflict intensites, and there is no evidence of acute maternal malnutrition, thus suggesting a role for other factors such as psychological stress in the increased probability of miscarriage.

Suggested Citation

  • Valente, C, 2011. "Children of the Revolution: Fetal and Child Health amidst Violent Civil Conflict," Health, Econometrics and Data Group (HEDG) Working Papers 11/12, HEDG, c/o Department of Economics, University of York.
  • Handle: RePEc:yor:hectdg:11/12
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Cited by:

    1. Bejenariu, Simona & Mitrut, Andreea, 2012. "Austerity Measures and Infant Health. Lessons from an Unexpected Wage Cut Policy," Working Paper Series 2012:4, Uppsala University, Department of Economics, revised 10 Oct 2013.
    2. Valente, Christine, 2014. "Access to abortion, investments in neonatal health, and sex-selection: Evidence from Nepal," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 107(C), pages 225-243.
    3. Cotet-Grecu, Anca M., 2016. "On the estimation of the effect of stressors on birth outcomes," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 147(C), pages 148-152.
    4. Muhammad Nasir, 2018. "Prenatal Exposure to Shocks and Early-Life Health: Impact of Terrorism and Flood on Birth Outcomes in Pakistan," PIDE-Working Papers 2018:155, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics.
    5. Chloe N. East & Sarah Miller & Marianne Page & Laura R. Wherry, 2017. "Multi-generational Impacts of Childhood Access to the Safety Net: Early Life Exposure to Medicaid and the Next Generation’s Health," NBER Working Papers 23810, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    6. Muhammad Nasir, 2016. "Violence and Child Health Outcomes: Evidence from Mexican Drug War," HiCN Working Papers 208, Households in Conflict Network.
    7. Richter, André & Robling, Per Olof, 2013. "Multigenerational e ffects of the 1918-19 influenza pandemic in Sweden," Working Paper Series 5/2013, Stockholm University, Swedish Institute for Social Research.
    8. Muhammad Nasir, 2018. "Prenatal Exposure to Shocks and Early-Life Health: Impact of Terrorism and Flood on Birth Outcomes in Pakistan," Working Papers id:12580, eSocialSciences.
    9. Nina Wald, 2014. "The Impact of Displacement on Child Health: Evidence from Colombia's DHS 2010," Discussion Papers of DIW Berlin 1420, DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research.
    10. Patricia Justino, 2012. "Nutrition, Governance and Violence: A Framework for the Analysis of Resilience and Vulnerability to Food Insecurity in Contexts of Violent Conflict," HiCN Working Papers 132, Households in Conflict Network.
    11. Bageant, Elizabeth & Liu, Yanyan & Diao, Xinshen, 2016. "Agriculture-nutrition linkages and child health in the presence of conflict in Nepal:," IFPRI discussion papers 1515, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).

    More about this item

    Keywords

    civil conflict; child health; fetal loss; Nepal;

    JEL classification:

    • I10 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Health - - - General
    • J13 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Fertility; Family Planning; Child Care; Children; Youth
    • O15 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Economic Development: Human Resources; Human Development; Income Distribution; Migration

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