Gender and agriculture : inefficiencies, segregation, and low productivity traps
Women make essential contributions to agriculture in developing countries, where they constitute approximately 43 percent of the agricultural labor force. However, female farmers typically have lower output per unit of land and are much less likely to be active in commercial farming than their male counterparts. These gender differences in land productivity and participation between male and female farmers are due to gender differences in access to inputs, resources, and services. In this paper, the authors review the evidence on productivity differences and access to resources. They discuss some of the reasons for these differences, such as differences in property rights, education, control over resources (e.g., land), access to inputs and services (e.g., fertilizer, extension, and credit), and social norms. Although women are less active in commercial farming and are largely excluded from contract farming, they often provide the bulk of wage labor in the nontraditional export sector. In general, gender gaps do not appear to fall systematically with growth, and they appear to rise with GDP per capita and with greater access to resources and inputs. Active policies that support women's access and participation, not just greater overall access, are essential if these gaps are to be closed. The gains in terms of greater productivity of land and overall production are likely to be large.
|Date of creation:||01 Feb 2013|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: 1818 H Street, N.W., Washington, DC 20433|
Phone: (202) 477-1234
Web page: http://www.worldbank.org/
More information through EDIRC
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- V Meier, 1999. "Cut-Flower Production in Colombiaâ€”A Major Development Success Story for Women?," Environment and Planning A, , vol. 31(2), pages 273-289, February.
- Meinzen-Dick, R., 2010.
"Engendering agricultural research,"
IWMI Working Papers
H043604, International Water Management Institute.
- Meinzen-Dick, Ruth & Quisumbing, Agnes & Behrman, Julia & Biermayr-Jenzano, Patricia & Wilde, Vicki & Noordeloos, Marco & Ragasa, Catherine & Beintema, Nienke, 2010. "Engendering agricultural research," IFPRI discussion papers 973, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
- Davis, K. & Nkonya, E. & Kato, E. & Mekonnen, D.A. & Odendo, M. & Miiro, R. & Nkuba, J., 2012. "Impact of Farmer Field Schools on Agricultural Productivity and Poverty in East Africa," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 40(2), pages 402-413.
- Davis, Kristin & Nkonya, Ephraim & Kato, Edward & Mekonnen, Daniel Ayalew & Odendo, Martins & Miiro, Richard & Nkuba, Jackson, 2010. "Impact of farmer field schools on agricultural productivity and poverty in East Africa," IFPRI discussion papers 992, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
- Diana Fletschner, 2008. "Women's Access to Credit: Does It Matter for Household Efficiency?," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 90(3), pages 669-683.
- Udry, Christopher, 1996. "Gender, Agricultural Production, and the Theory of the Household," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 104(5), pages 1010-1046, October.
- Sanzidur Rahman, 2010. "Women's Labour Contribution to Productivity and Efficiency in Agriculture: Empirical Evidence From Bangladesh," Journal of Agricultural Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 61(2), pages 318-342.
- Ouma, James Okuro & De Groote, Hugo & Owuor, George, 2006. "Determinants of Improved Maize Seed and Fertilizer Use in Kenya: Policy Implications," 2006 Annual Meeting, August 12-18, 2006, Queensland, Australia 25433, International Association of Agricultural Economists.
- Doss, Cheryl R. & Morris, Michael L., 2001. "How does gender affect the adoption of agricultural innovations?: The case of improved maize technology in Ghana," Agricultural Economics, Blackwell, vol. 25(1), pages 27-39, June.
- Doss, Cheryl R. & Morris, Michael L., 2001. "How does gender affect the adoption of agricultural innovations? The case of improved maize technology in Ghana," Agricultural Economics of Agricultural Economists, International Association of Agricultural Economists, vol. 25(1), June.
- Morris, Michael L. & Doss, Cheryl R., 1999. "How Does Gender Affect The Adoption Of Agricultural Innovations? The Case Of Improved Maize Technology In Ghana," 1999 Annual meeting, August 8-11, Nashville, TN 21609, American Agricultural Economics Association (New Name 2008: Agricultural and Applied Economics Association).
- Peterman, Amber & Behrman, Julia & Quisumbing, Agnes, 2010. "A review of empirical evidence on gender differences in nonland agricultural inputs, technology, and services in developing countries," IFPRI discussion papers 975, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
- Yotopoulos, Pan A & Lau, Lawrence J, 1973. "A Test for Relative Economic Efficiency: Some Further Results," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 63(1), pages 214-223, March.
- Greta Friedemann-Sanchez, 2006. "Assets In Intrahousehold Bargaining Among Women Workers In Colombia'S Cut-Flower Industry," Feminist Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 12(1-2), pages 247-269.
- Marcel Fafchamps, 1992. "Cash Crop Production, Food Price Volatility, and Rural Market Integration in the Third World," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 74(1), pages 90-99.
- Ali, Daniel Ayalew & Deininger, Klaus & Goldstein, Markus, 2014. "Environmental and gender impacts of land tenure regularization in Africa: Pilot evidence from Rwanda," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 110(C), pages 262-275.
- Ali, Daniel Ayalew & Deininger, Klaus & Goldstein, Markus, 2011. "Environmental and gender impacts of land tenure regularization in Africa : pilot evidence from Rwanda," Policy Research Working Paper Series 5765, The World Bank.
- World Bank & Food and Agriculture Organization & International Fund for Agricultural Development, 2009. "Gender in Agriculture Sourcebook," World Bank Publications, The World Bank, number 6603.
- Kumar, Shubh K., 1994. "Adoption of hybrid maize in Zambia: effects on gender roles, food consumption, and nutrition," Research reports 100, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
- Bourdillon, Michael & Hebinck, Paul & Hoddinott, John & Kinsey, Bill & Marondo, John & Mudege, Netsayi & Owens, Trudy, 2003. "Assessing the impact of high-yielding varieties of maize in resettlement areas of Zimbabwe," FCND briefs 161, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
- Bourdillon, Michael & Hebinck, Paul & Hoddinott, John & Kinsey, Bill & Marondo, John & Mudege, Netsayi & Owens, Trudy, 2003. "Assessing the impact of high-yielding varieties of maize in resettlement areas of Zimbabwe," FCND discussion papers 161, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
- Quisumbing, Agnes R. & Pandolfelli, Lauren, 2010. "Promising Approaches to Address the Needs of Poor Female Farmers: Resources, Constraints, and Interventions," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 38(4), pages 581-592, April.
- Quisumbing, Agnes R. & Pandolfelli, Lauren, 2009. "Promising approaches to address the needs of poor female farmers: Resources, constraints, and interventions," IFPRI discussion papers 882, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
- Sara Horrell & Pramila Krishnan, 2007. "Poverty and productivity in female-headed households in Zimbabwe," Journal of Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 43(8), pages 1351-1380.
- Horrell, S. & Krishnan, P., 2006. "Poverty and Productivity in Female-Headed Households in Zimbabwe," Cambridge Working Papers in Economics 0663, Faculty of Economics, University of Cambridge.
- Adesina, Akinwumi A. & Djato, Kouakou K., 1997. "Relative efficiency of women as farm managers: Profit function analysis in Cote d'Ivoire," Agricultural Economics, Blackwell, vol. 16(1), pages 47-53, March.
- Margreet Zwarteveen & Ruth Meinzen-Dick, 2001. "Gender and property rights in the commons: Examples of water rights in South Asia," Agriculture and Human Values, Springer;The Agriculture, Food, & Human Values Society (AFHVS), vol. 18(1), pages 11-25, March.
- Akresh, Richard, 2005. "Understanding Pareto Inefficient Intrahousehold Allocations," IZA Discussion Papers 1858, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Anna Tibaijuka, 1994. "The Cost Of Differential Gender Roles In African Agriculture: A Case Study Of Smallholder Banana-Coffee Farms In The Kagera Region, Tanzania," Journal of Agricultural Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 45(1), pages 69-81.
- C. Dolan, 2001. "The 'Good Wife': Struggles over Resources in the Kenyan Horticultural Sector," Journal of Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 37(3), pages 39-70.
- Deere, Carmen Diana & Leon, Magdalena, 2003. "The Gender Asset Gap: Land in Latin America," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 31(6), pages 925-947, June.
- Jean M. Due & Christina H. Gladwin, 1991. "Impacts of Structural Adjustment Programs on African Women Farmers and Female-Headed Households," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 73(5), pages 1431-1439.
- Thomas Masterson, 2007. "Female Land Rights, Crop Specialization, and Productivity in Paraguayan Agriculture," Economics Working Paper Archive wp_504, Levy Economics Institute.
- Hassan Y. Aly & Michael P. Shields, 2010. "Gender and agricultural productivity in a surplus labor, traditional economy:empirical evidence from Nepal," Journal of Developing Areas, Tennessee State University, College of Business, vol. 43(2), pages 111-124, January-M.
- von Braun, Joachim & Webb, Patrick J R, 1989. "The Impact of New Crop Technology on the Agricultural Division of Labor in a West African Setting," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 37(3), pages 513-534, April. Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)