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Gender and Agriculture: Inefficiencies, Segregation, and Low Productivity Traps

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  • Andre Croppenstedt
  • Markus Goldstein
  • Nina Rosas

Abstract

Women make essential contributions to agriculture in developing countries, where they constitute approximately 43 percent of the agricultural labor force. However, female farmers typically have lower output per unit of land and are much less likely to be active in commercial farming than their male counterparts. These gender differences in land productivity and participation between male and female farmers are due to gender differences in access to inputs, resources, and services. In this paper, we review the evidence on productivity differences and access to resources. We discuss some of the reasons for these differences, such as differences in property rights, education, control over resources (e.g., land), access to inputs and services (e.g., fertilizer, extension, and credit), and social norms. Although women are less active in commercial farming and are largely excluded from contract farming, they often provide the bulk of wage labor in the nontraditional export sector. In general, gender gaps do not appear to fall systematically with growth, and they appear to rise with GDP per capita and with greater access to resources and inputs. Active policies that support women's access and participation, not just greater overall access, are essential if these gaps are to be closed. The gains in terms of greater productivity of land and overall production are likely to be large. Copyright 2013, Oxford University Press.

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  • Andre Croppenstedt & Markus Goldstein & Nina Rosas, 2013. "Gender and Agriculture: Inefficiencies, Segregation, and Low Productivity Traps," World Bank Research Observer, World Bank Group, vol. 28(1), pages 79-109, February.
  • Handle: RePEc:oup:wbrobs:v:28:y:2013:i:1:p:79-109
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    2. Jennifer Ball, 2014. "She works hard for the money: women in Kansas agriculture," Agriculture and Human Values, Springer;The Agriculture, Food, & Human Values Society (AFHVS), vol. 31(4), pages 593-605, December.
    3. repec:bla:devpol:v:35:y:2017:i:2:p:263-287 is not listed on IDEAS
    4. Arturo Aguilar & Eliana Carranza & Markus Goldstein & Talip Kilic & Gbemisola Oseni, 2015. "Decomposition of gender differentials in agricultural productivity in Ethiopia," Agricultural Economics, International Association of Agricultural Economists, vol. 46(3), pages 311-334, May.
    5. Magnan, Nicholas & Spielman, David J. & Gulati, Kajal & Lybbert, Travis, 2015. "Information Networks among Women and Men and the Demand for an Agricultural Technology in India," 2015 Conference, August 9-14, 2015, Milan, Italy 212209, International Association of Agricultural Economists.
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    8. Kosec, Katrina & Ghebru, Hosaena & Holtemeyer, Brian & Mueller, Valerie & Schmidt, Emily, 2016. "The effect of land inheritance on youth employment and migration decisions: Evidence from rural Ethiopia," IFPRI discussion papers 1594, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
    9. repec:pal:eurjdr:v:30:y:2018:i:1:d:10.1057_s41287-017-0118-z is not listed on IDEAS
    10. Kondylis, Florence & Mueller, Valerie & Sheriff, Glenn & Zhu, Siyao, 2016. "Do Female Instructors Reduce Gender Bias in Diffusion of Sustainable Land Management Techniques? Experimental Evidence From Mozambique," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 78(C), pages 436-449.
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    13. Beatrice W. Muriithi & Gracious M. Diiro & Menale Kassie & Geoffrey Muricho, 2018. "Does gender matter in the adoption of sustainable agricultural technologies? A case of push-pull technology in Kenya," Working Papers PMMA 2018-05, PEP-PMMA.
    14. Bernard, Tanguy & Hidrobo, Melissa & Le Port, Agnès & Rawat, Rahul, 2017. "Nutrition incentives in dairy contract farming in northern Senegal," IFPRI discussion papers 1629, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
    15. de la O Campos, Ana Paula & Covarrubias, Katia Alejandra & Prieto Patron, Alberto, 2016. "How Does the Choice of the Gender Indicator Affect the Analysis of Gender Differences in Agricultural Productivity? Evidence from Uganda," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 77(C), pages 17-33.
    16. Oğuz Cennet, 2015. "Importance Of Rural Women As Part Of The Population In Turkey," European Countryside, Sciendo, vol. 7(2), pages 101-110, June.
    17. Hoel, Jessica B. & Hidrobo, Melissa & Bernard, Tanguy & Ashour, Maha, 2017. "Productive inefficiency in dairy farming and cooperation between spouses: Evidence from Senegal:," IFPRI discussion papers 1698, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
    18. Christine Dieterich & Anni Huang & Alun H. Thomas, 2016. "Women’s Opportunities and Challenges in Sub-Saharan African Job Markets," IMF Working Papers 16/118, International Monetary Fund.

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