IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/vlg/vlgwps/2009-12.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

From Distress to exit: determinants of the time to exit

Author

Listed:
  • Balcaen, S.
  • Manigart, S.
  • Ooghe, H.

    (Vlerick Leuven Gent Management School)

Abstract

This paper analyses the duration of the time to exit of distressed firms, differentiating between involuntary exits (mainly bankruptcies) and voluntary liquidations. It examines how long firms survive after initial signs of economic distress. The study is conducted on an extensive dataset of 5,233 Belgian distress-related exits of non-starting firms, the majority being privately held. The results highlight that slack resources have an opposite effect on the timing of involuntary exits and voluntary liquidations. On the one hand, high levels of available and potential slack increase the time to involuntary exit, as they allow distressed firms to postpone an impending involuntary exit. On the other hand, high available slack resources shorten the time to voluntary liquidation as they make voluntary liquidation easier. Further, a high level of stakeholder dependence increases the time to exit after distress, whether the firm exits through a voluntary or through an involuntary procedure. This is explained by the fact that stakeholder dependence increases the complexity of the exit decision and the exit procedure.

Suggested Citation

  • Balcaen, S. & Manigart, S. & Ooghe, H., 2009. "From Distress to exit: determinants of the time to exit," Vlerick Leuven Gent Management School Working Paper Series 2009-12, Vlerick Leuven Gent Management School.
  • Handle: RePEc:vlg:vlgwps:2009-12
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://www.vlerick.com/en/10843-VLK/version/default/part/AttachmentData/data/vlgms-wp-2009-12.pdf
    Download Restriction: no
    ---><---

    Other versions of this item:

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Bandopadhyaya, Arindam, 1994. "An Estimation of the Hazard Rate of Firms under Chapter 11 Protection," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 76(2), pages 346-350, May.
    2. Ongena, Steven & Smith, David C., 2000. "What Determines the Number of Bank Relationships? Cross-Country Evidence," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 9(1), pages 26-56, January.
    3. Denis, Diane K. & Rodgers, Kimberly J., 2007. "Chapter 11: Duration, Outcome, and Post-Reorganization Performance," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 42(1), pages 101-118, March.
    4. Baum, Christopher F. & Caglayan, Mustafa & Stephan, Andreas & Talavera, Oleksandr, 2008. "Uncertainty determinants of corporate liquidity," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 25(5), pages 833-849, September.
    5. B. Leyman & K. Schoors, 2008. "Bank Debt Restructuring under Belgian Court-Supervised Reorganization," Working Papers of Faculty of Economics and Business Administration, Ghent University, Belgium 08/508, Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration.
    6. White, Halbert, 1980. "A Heteroskedasticity-Consistent Covariance Matrix Estimator and a Direct Test for Heteroskedasticity," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 48(4), pages 817-838, May.
    7. Degryse, Hans & Van Cayseele, Patrick, 2000. "Relationship Lending within a Bank-Based System: Evidence from European Small Business Data," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 9(1), pages 90-109, January.
    8. Thomas F. Cooley & Vincenzo Quadrini, 2001. "Financial Markets and Firm Dynamics," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 91(5), pages 1286-1310, December.
    9. Steven M. Fazzari & R. Glenn Hubbard & Bruce C. Petersen, 1988. "Financing Constraints and Corporate Investment," Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, Economic Studies Program, The Brookings Institution, vol. 19(1), pages 141-206.
    10. Oscar Couwenberg, 2001. "Survival Rates in Bankruptcy Systems: Overlooking the Evidence," European Journal of Law and Economics, Springer, vol. 12(3), pages 253-273, November.
    11. Ozkan, Aydin & Ozkan, Neslihan, 2004. "Corporate cash holdings: An empirical investigation of UK companies," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 28(9), pages 2103-2134, September.
    12. Becchetti, Leonardo & Sierra, Jaime, 2003. "Bankruptcy risk and productive efficiency in manufacturing firms," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 27(11), pages 2099-2120, November.
    13. Amemiya, Takeshi, 1973. "Regression Analysis when the Dependent Variable is Truncated Normal," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 41(6), pages 997-1016, November.
    14. Li, Kai, 1999. "Bayesian analysis of duration models: an application to Chapter 11 bankruptcy," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 63(3), pages 305-312, June.
    15. Justin Tan & Mike W. Peng, 2003. "Organizational slack and firm performance during economic transitions: two studies from an emerging economy," Strategic Management Journal, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 24(13), pages 1249-1263, December.
    16. Berger, Allen N & Udell, Gregory F, 1995. "Relationship Lending and Lines of Credit in Small Firm Finance," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 68(3), pages 351-381, July.
    17. Stiglitz, Joseph E & Weiss, Andrew, 1981. "Credit Rationing in Markets with Imperfect Information," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 71(3), pages 393-410, June.
    18. Couwenberg, Oscar, 2001. "Survival rates in bankruptcy systems : overlooking the evidence," Research Report 01E15, University of Groningen, Research Institute SOM (Systems, Organisations and Management).
    19. Kevin M.J. Kaiser, 1996. "European Bankruptcy Laws: Implications for Corporations Facing Financial Distress," Financial Management, Financial Management Association, vol. 25(3), Fall.
    20. Orbe, Jesus & Ferreira, Eva & Nunez-Anton, Vicente, 2001. "Modelling the duration of firms in Chapter 11 bankruptcy using a flexible model," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 71(1), pages 35-42, April.
    21. Richard P. Rumelt & Dan Schendel & David J. Teece, 1991. "Strategic management and economics," Strategic Management Journal, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 12(S2), pages 5-29, December.
    22. Buehler, Stefan & Kaiser, Christian & Jaeger, Franz, 2006. "Merge or fail? The determinants of mergers and bankruptcies in Switzerland, 1995-2000," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 90(1), pages 88-95, January.
    23. Cole, Rebel A., 1998. "The importance of relationships to the availability of credit," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 22(6-8), pages 959-977, August.
    24. Pompe, Paul P.M. & Bilderbeek, Jan, 2005. "The prediction of bankruptcy of small- and medium-sized industrial firms," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 20(6), pages 847-868, November.
    25. Silviano Esteve-Pérez & Juan Mañez-Castillejo, 2008. "The Resource-Based Theory of the Firm and Firm Survival," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 30(3), pages 231-249, March.
    26. Dimitras, A. I. & Zanakis, S. H. & Zopounidis, C., 1996. "A survey of business failures with an emphasis on prediction methods and industrial applications," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 90(3), pages 487-513, May.
    27. Jones, Stewart & Hensher, David A., 2007. "Modelling corporate failure: A multinomial nested logit analysis for unordered outcomes," The British Accounting Review, Elsevier, vol. 39(1), pages 89-107.
    28. Marc Deloof, 2003. "Does Working Capital Management Affect Profitability of Belgian Firms?," Journal of Business Finance & Accounting, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 30(3‐4), pages 573-588, April.
    29. Cefis, E. & Marsili, O., 2007. "Going, Going, Gone. Innovation and Exit in Manufacturing Firms," ERIM Report Series Research in Management ERS-2007-015-ORG, Erasmus Research Institute of Management (ERIM), ERIM is the joint research institute of the Rotterdam School of Management, Erasmus University and the Erasmus School of Economics (ESE) at Erasmus University Rotterdam.
    30. Marc Deloof, 2003. "Does Working Capital Management Affect Profitability of Belgian Firms?," Journal of Business Finance & Accounting, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 30(3-4), pages 573-588.
    31. Chowdhury, Shamsud D. & Lang, James R., 1996. "Turnaround in small firms: An assessment of efficiency strategies," Journal of Business Research, Elsevier, vol. 36(2), pages 169-178, June.
    32. Angeloantonio Russo & Francesco Perrini, 2010. "Investigating Stakeholder Theory and Social Capital: CSR in Large Firms and SMEs," Journal of Business Ethics, Springer, vol. 91(2), pages 207-221, January.
    33. Douglas W. Diamond, 1984. "Financial Intermediation and Delegated Monitoring," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 51(3), pages 393-414.
    34. repec:dgr:rugsom:01e15 is not listed on IDEAS
    35. Gilson, Stuart C. & John, Kose & Lang, Larry H. P., 1990. "Troubled debt restructurings*1: An empirical study of private reorganization of firms in default," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 27(2), pages 315-353, October.
    36. Joel Rogers & Wolfgang Streeck, 1995. "Works Councils: Consultation, Representation, and Cooperation in Industrial Relations," NBER Books, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc, number roge95-1, June.
    37. Richard E. Caves, 1998. "Industrial Organization and New Findings on the Turnover and Mobility of Firms," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 36(4), pages 1947-1982, December.
    38. B. Leyman & K. Schoors & P. Coussement, 2008. "Court-supervised Restructuring: Pre-bankruptcy Dynamics, Debt Structure and Debt Rescheduling," Working Papers of Faculty of Economics and Business Administration, Ghent University, Belgium 08/507, Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration.
    39. Harhoff, Dietmar & Stahl, Konrad & Woywode, Michael, 1998. "Legal Form, Growth and Exit of West German Firms--Empirical Results for Manufacturing, Construction, Trade and Service Industries," Journal of Industrial Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 46(4), pages 453-488, December.
    40. Boot, Arnoud W. A., 2000. "Relationship Banking: What Do We Know?," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 9(1), pages 7-25, January.
    41. Petersen, Mitchell A & Rajan, Raghuram G, 1994. "The Benefits of Lending Relationships: Evidence from Small Business Data," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 49(1), pages 3-37, March.
    42. Klepper, Steven, 1996. "Entry, Exit, Growth, and Innovation over the Product Life Cycle," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 86(3), pages 562-583, June.
    43. Prantl, Susanne, 2003. "Bankruptcy and Voluntary Liquidation: Evidence for New Firms in East and West Germany after Unification," ZEW Discussion Papers 03-72, ZEW - Leibniz Centre for European Economic Research.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Giovanni Marin & Marco Modica, 2021. "Local demand shocks and firms' survival: An application to the Italian economy during the Great Recession," Papers in Regional Science, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 100(3), pages 745-775, June.
    2. Priyambada Gupta, 2019. "Firm Survival through Semi-Exits: The Case of Indian Registered Manufacturing," Asian Journal of Economics and Empirical Research, Asian Online Journal Publishing Group, vol. 6(2), pages 148-168.
    3. Diego Useche & Sophie Pommet, 2021. "Where do we go? VC firm heterogeneity and the exit routes of newly listed high-tech firms," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 57(3), pages 1339-1359, October.
    4. Xavier Brédart & Eric Séverin & David Veganzones, 2021. "Human resources and corporate failure prediction modeling: Evidence from Belgium," Journal of Forecasting, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 40(7), pages 1325-1341, November.
    5. XU Peng, 2021. "Population Aging and Small Business Exits," Discussion papers 21091, Research Institute of Economy, Trade and Industry (RIETI).
    6. Sofie Balcaen & Sophie Manigart & Jozefien Buyze & Hubert Ooghe, 2012. "Firm exit after distress: differentiating between bankruptcy, voluntary liquidation and M&A," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 39(4), pages 949-975, November.
    7. Stef, Nicolae & Zenou, Emmanuel, 2021. "Management-to-staff ratio and a firm's exit," Journal of Business Research, Elsevier, vol. 125(C), pages 252-260.
    8. Jaka Cepec & Peter Grajzl & Barbara Mörec, 2022. "Public cash and modes of firm exit," Journal of Evolutionary Economics, Springer, vol. 32(1), pages 247-298, January.
    9. Yamakawa, Yasuhiro & Cardon, Melissa S., 2017. "How prior investments of time, money, and employee hires influence time to exit a distressed venture, and the extent to which contingency planning helps," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 32(1), pages 1-17.
    10. Jenkins, Anna & McKelvie, Alexander, 2017. "Is this the end? Investigating firm and individual level outcomes post-failure," Journal of Business Venturing Insights, Elsevier, vol. 8(C), pages 138-143.
    11. Richard Gentry & Clay Dibrell & Jaemin Kim, 2016. "Long–Term Orientation in Publicly Traded Family Businesses: Evidence of a Dominant Logic," Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, , vol. 40(4), pages 733-757, July.
    12. Giovanni Marin & Marco Modica, 2019. "The Survival of Italian Individual Firms to Local Demand Shocks During the Great Recession," SEEDS Working Papers 0119, SEEDS, Sustainability Environmental Economics and Dynamics Studies, revised Jan 2019.
    13. Karlien Coppens & Mirjam Knockaert, 2022. "Committed to the venture or the family? A study of entrepreneurial persistence in distressed ventures," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 58(1), pages 263-280, January.
    14. Terjesen, Siri A. & João Guedes, Maria & Patel, Pankaj C., 2016. "Founded in adversity: Operations-based survival strategies of ventures founded during a recession," International Journal of Production Economics, Elsevier, vol. 173(C), pages 161-169.
    15. Jenkins, Anna S, 2021. "Relief and exploration after firm failure: Taking into account pre-failure experiences to understand post-failure responses," Journal of Business Venturing Insights, Elsevier, vol. 15(C).
    16. Diego Useche & Sophie Pommet, 0. "Where do we go? VC firm heterogeneity and the exit routes of newly listed high-tech firms," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 0, pages 1-21.

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. S. Balcaen & J. Buyze & H. Ooghe, 2009. "Financial distress and firm exit: determinants of involuntary exits, voluntary liquidations and restructuring exits," Working Papers of Faculty of Economics and Business Administration, Ghent University, Belgium 09/598, Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration.
    2. Annalisa Castelli & Gerald P. Dwyer & Iftekhar Hasan, 2006. "Bank relationships and small firms’ financial performance," FRB Atlanta Working Paper 2006-05, Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta.
    3. Tumer-Alkan, G., 2008. "Essays on banking," Other publications TiSEM 8d5ec521-4702-4e75-bc79-a, Tilburg University, School of Economics and Management.
    4. Antonio Pedro Soares Pinto & Mario Gomes Augusto, 2014. "Are There Non-linear Effects of Banking Relationships and Ownership Concentration on Operational Performance? Empirical Evidence from Portuguese SMEs Using Cross-section Analysis and Panel Data," International Journal of Financial Research, International Journal of Financial Research, Sciedu Press, vol. 5(4), pages 67-84, October.
    5. Simon Corn�e, 2014. "Soft Information and Default Prediction in Cooperative and Social Banks," Journal of Entrepreneurial and Organizational Diversity, European Research Institute on Cooperative and Social Enterprises, vol. 3(1), pages 89-103, June.
    6. Catherine Fuss & Philip Vermeulen, 2006. "The response of firms\u2019 investment and financing to adverse cash flow shocks : the role of bank relationships," Working Paper Research 87, National Bank of Belgium.
    7. Foroughfard, Rasoul & Rahmati, Mohammad, 2019. "The Effect of Relationship Lending on Loan Contract Terms," Journal of Money and Economy, Monetary and Banking Research Institute, Central Bank of the Islamic Republic of Iran, vol. 14(2), pages 133-157, April.
    8. Brewer, Elijah III & Genay, Hesna & Hunter, William Curt & Kaufman, George G., 2003. "The value of banking relationships during a financial crisis: Evidence from failures of Japanese banks," Journal of the Japanese and International Economies, Elsevier, vol. 17(3), pages 233-262, September.
    9. Irma Malafronte & Stefano Monferrà & Claudio Porzio & Gabriele Sampagnaro, 2014. "Competition, specialization and bank--firm interaction: what happens in credit crunch periods?," Applied Financial Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 24(8), pages 557-571, April.
    10. Ferri, Giovanni & Murro, Pierluigi, 2015. "Do firm–bank ‘odd couples’ exacerbate credit rationing?," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 24(2), pages 231-251.
    11. Berger, Allen N. & Klapper, Leora F. & Udell, Gregory F., 2001. "The ability of banks to lend to informationally opaque small businesses," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 25(12), pages 2127-2167, December.
    12. Lehmann, Erik & Neuberger, Doris, 2001. "Do lending relationships matter?: Evidence from bank survey data in Germany," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 45(4), pages 339-359, August.
    13. Santikian, Lori, 2014. "The ties that bind: Bank relationships and small business lending," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 23(2), pages 177-213.
    14. Allen N. Berger & Gregory F. Udell, 2002. "Small Business Credit Availability and Relationship Lending: The Importance of Bank Organisational Structure," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 112(477), pages 32-53, February.
    15. Annalisa Castelli & Gerald P. Dwyer & Iftekhar Hasan, 2012. "Bank Relationships and Firms' Financial Performance: The Italian Experience," European Financial Management, European Financial Management Association, vol. 18(1), pages 28-67, January.
    16. Cardone Riportella, Clara & Casasola, María José & Samartín Sáenz, Margarita, 2005. "Do banking relationships improve credit conditions for Spanish SMEs?," DEE - Working Papers. Business Economics. WB wb052806, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid. Departamento de Economía de la Empresa.
    17. Manoj Athavale & Robert O. Edmister, 2004. "The Pricing of Sequential Bank Loans," The Financial Review, Eastern Finance Association, vol. 39(2), pages 231-253, May.
    18. Chakraborty, Atreya & Hu, Charles X., 2006. "Lending relationships in line-of-credit and nonline-of-credit loans: Evidence from collateral use in small business," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 15(1), pages 86-107, January.
    19. Alessandro Gambini & Alberto Zazzaro, 2013. "Long-lasting bank relationships and growth of firms," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 40(4), pages 977-1007, May.
    20. López-Espinosa, Germán & Mayordomo, Sergio & Moreno, Antonio, 2017. "When does relationship lending start to pay?," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 31(C), pages 16-29.

    More about this item

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:vlg:vlgwps:2009-12. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: . General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/vlgmsbe.html .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: Isabelle Vandenbroere (email available below). General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/vlgmsbe.html .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.