IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/a/eee/irlaec/v29y2009i4p375-387.html
   My bibliography  Save this article

Filtering speed in a Continental European reorganization procedure

Author

Listed:
  • Dewaelheyns, Nico
  • Van Hulle, Cynthia

Abstract

Recent studies of US Chapter 11 show it to be a relatively efficient procedure. We examine reorganization cases in a Continental European, creditor-oriented bankruptcy system, viz. Belgium, and report very different findings. Using hazard and cure regression models to determine what drives the length of time spent in reorganizations, we find evidence suggesting that courts have little impact on the screening and filtering process. In fact, many drivers of procedure length prove to have the opposite sign of what one would expect if the procedure would efficiently realise its goals. Instead, the procedure appears to be mainly creditor or owner-driven.

Suggested Citation

  • Dewaelheyns, Nico & Van Hulle, Cynthia, 2009. "Filtering speed in a Continental European reorganization procedure," International Review of Law and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 29(4), pages 375-387, December.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:irlaec:v:29:y:2009:i:4:p:375-387
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0144-8188(09)00025-8
    Download Restriction: Full text for ScienceDirect subscribers only
    ---><---

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to search for a different version of it.

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Bandopadhyaya, Arindam, 1994. "An Estimation of the Hazard Rate of Firms under Chapter 11 Protection," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 76(2), pages 346-350, May.
    2. Hotchkiss, Edith Shwalb, 1995. "Postbankruptcy Performance and Management Turnover," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 50(1), pages 3-21, March.
    3. Denis, Diane K. & Rodgers, Kimberly J., 2007. "Chapter 11: Duration, Outcome, and Post-Reorganization Performance," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 42(1), pages 101-118, March.
    4. Shleifer, Andrei & Vishny, Robert W, 1992. "Liquidation Values and Debt Capacity: A Market Equilibrium Approach," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 47(4), pages 1343-1366, September.
    5. Maria Brouwer, 2006. "Reorganization in US and European Bankruptcy law," European Journal of Law and Economics, Springer, vol. 22(1), pages 5-20, July.
    6. Kiefer, Nicholas M, 1988. "Economic Duration Data and Hazard Functions," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 26(2), pages 646-679, June.
    7. Arturo Bris & Ivo Welch & Ning Zhu, 2006. "The Costs of Bankruptcy: Chapter 7 Liquidation versus Chapter 11 Reorganization," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 61(3), pages 1253-1303, June.
    8. Régis Blazy & Bertrand Chopard & Agnès Fimayer & Jean-Daniel Guigou, 2007. "Financial versus Social Efficiency of Corporate Bankruptcy Law: the French Dilemma?," LSF Research Working Paper Series 07-02, Luxembourg School of Finance, University of Luxembourg.
    9. Bergstrom, Clas & Eisenberg, Theodore & Sundgren, Stefan, 2002. "Secured debt and the likelihood of reorganization," International Review of Law and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 21(4), pages 359-372, May.
    10. Oscar Couwenberg, 2001. "Survival Rates in Bankruptcy Systems: Overlooking the Evidence," European Journal of Law and Economics, Springer, vol. 12(3), pages 253-273, November.
    11. Nico Dewaelheyns & Cynthia Van Hulle, 2006. "Corporate Failure Prediction Modeling: Distorted by Business Groups' Internal Capital Markets?," Journal of Business Finance & Accounting, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 33(5‐6), pages 909-931, June.
    12. Berger, Philip G. & Ofek, Eli & Swary, Itzhak, 1996. "Investor valuation of the abandonment option," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 42(2), pages 257-287, October.
    13. Rafael La Porta & Florencio Lopez-de-Silanes & Andrei Shleifer & Robert W. Vishny, 1998. "Law and Finance," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 106(6), pages 1113-1155, December.
    14. White, Michelle J, 1994. "Corporate Bankruptcy as a Filtering Device: Chapter 11 Reorganizations and Out-of-Court Debt Restructurings," Journal of Law, Economics, and Organization, Oxford University Press, vol. 10(2), pages 268-295, October.
    15. Li, Kai, 1999. "Bayesian analysis of duration models: an application to Chapter 11 bankruptcy," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 63(3), pages 305-312, June.
    16. Branch, Ben, 2002. "The costs of bankruptcy: A review," International Review of Financial Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 11(1), pages 39-57.
    17. Matthias Kahl, 2002. "Economic Distress, Financial Distress, and Dynamic Liquidation," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 57(1), pages 135-168, February.
    18. S. Abraham Ravid & S. Sundgren, 1998. "The Comparative Efficiency of Small-Firm Bankruptcies: A Study of the US and Finnish Bankruptcy Codes," New York University, Leonard N. Stern School Finance Department Working Paper Seires 98-054, New York University, Leonard N. Stern School of Business-.
    19. Hege, Ulrich, 2003. "Workouts, court-supervised reorganization and the choice between private and public debt," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 9(2), pages 233-269, March.
    20. Couwenberg, Oscar, 2001. "Survival rates in bankruptcy systems : overlooking the evidence," Research Report 01E15, University of Groningen, Research Institute SOM (Systems, Organisations and Management).
    21. Berkovitch, Elazar & Israel, Ronen, 1999. "Optimal Bankruptcy Laws across Different Economic Systems," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 12(2), pages 347-377.
    22. Gertner, Robert & Scharfstein, David, 1991. "A Theory of Workouts and the Effects of Reorganization Law," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 46(4), pages 1189-1222, September.
    23. Julian Franks & Oren Sussman, 2005. "Financial Distress and Bank Restructuring of Small to Medium Size UK Companies," Review of Finance, European Finance Association, vol. 9(1), pages 65-96.
    24. Bianco, Magda & Nicodano, Giovanna, 2006. "Pyramidal groups and debt," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 50(4), pages 937-961, May.
    25. Edward I. Altman, 1968. "Financial Ratios, Discriminant Analysis And The Prediction Of Corporate Bankruptcy," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 23(4), pages 589-609, September.
    26. Jesus Orbe & Eva Ferreira & Vicente Nunez-Anton, 2002. "Length of time spent in Chapter 11 bankruptcy: a censored partial regression model," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 34(15), pages 1949-1957.
    27. Eisenberg, Theodore & Tagashira, Shoichi, 1994. "Should We Abolish Chapter 11? The Evidence from Japan," The Journal of Legal Studies, University of Chicago Press, vol. 23(1), pages 111-157, January.
    28. Julian Franks & Oren Sussman, 2005. "Financial Distress and Bank Restructuring of Small to Medium Size UK Companies," Review of Finance, Springer, vol. 9(1), pages 65-96, March.
    29. Edward R. Morrison, 2007. "Bankruptcy Decision Making: An Empirical Study of Continuation Bias in Small-Business Bankruptcies," Journal of Law and Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 50, pages 381-419.
    30. Franks, Julian R & Torous, Walter N, 1989. " An Empirical Investigation of U.S. Firms in Reorganization," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 44(3), pages 747-769, July.
    31. B. Leyman & K. Schoors & P. Coussement, 2008. "The Role of Firm Viability, Creditor Behavior and Judicial Discretion in the Failure of Distressed Firms under Courtsupervised Restructuring: Evidence from Belgium," Working Papers of Faculty of Economics and Business Administration, Ghent University, Belgium 08/509, Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration.
    32. Weiss, Lawrence A., 1990. "Bankruptcy resolution: Direct costs and violation of priority of claims," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 27(2), pages 285-314, October.
    33. Vojislav Maksimovic & Gordon Phillips, 1998. "Asset Efficiency and Reallocation Decisions of Bankrupt Firms," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 53(5), pages 1495-1532, October.
    34. Jean Helwege, 1999. "How Long Do Junk Bonds Spend in Default?," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 54(1), pages 341-357, February.
    35. Edward I. Altman, 1968. "The Prediction Of Corporate Bankruptcy: A Discriminant Analysis," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 23(1), pages 193-194, March.
    36. Ohlson, Ja, 1980. "Financial Ratios And The Probabilistic Prediction Of Bankruptcy," Journal of Accounting Research, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 18(1), pages 109-131.
    37. repec:dgr:rugsom:01e15 is not listed on IDEAS
    38. S. Abraham Ravid & Stefan Sundgren, 1998. "The Comparative Efficiency of Small-Firm Bankruptcies: A Study of the US and Finnish Bankruptcy Codes," Financial Management, Financial Management Association, vol. 27(4), Winter.
    39. Tashjian, Elizabeth & Lease, Ronald C. & McConnell, John J., 1996. "An empirical analysis of prepackaged bankruptcies," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 40(1), pages 135-162, January.
    40. Nico Dewaelheyns & Cynthia Hulle, 2008. "Legal reform and aggregate small and micro business bankruptcy rates: evidence from the 1997 Belgian bankruptcy code," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 31(4), pages 409-424, December.
    41. Stefan Sundgren, 1998. "Does a Reorganization Law Improve the Efficiency of the Insolvency Law? The Finnish Experience," European Journal of Law and Economics, Springer, vol. 6(2), pages 177-198, September.
    42. Mooradian, Robert M, 1994. "The Effect of Bankruptcy Protection on Investment: Chapter 11 as a Screening Device," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 49(4), pages 1403-1430, September.
    43. Rajan, Raghuram G, 1992. "Insiders and Outsiders: The Choice between Informed and Arm's-Length Debt," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 47(4), pages 1367-1400, September.
    44. Evans, Jocelyn, 2003. "The effect of discretionary actions on small firms' ability to survive Chapter 11 bankruptcy," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 9(1), pages 115-128, January.
    45. Helwege, Jean & Packer, Frank, 2003. "Determinants of the choice of bankruptcy procedure in Japan," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 12(1), pages 96-120, January.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Cepec, Jaka & Grajzl, Peter, 2020. "Debt-to-equity conversion in bankruptcy reorganization and post-bankruptcy firm survival," International Review of Law and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 61(C).
    2. Betz, Jennifer & Kellner, Ralf & Rösch, Daniel, 2016. "What drives the time to resolution of defaulted bank loans?," Finance Research Letters, Elsevier, vol. 18(C), pages 7-31.
    3. Lara Abdel Fattah & Sylvain Barthélémy & Nadine Levratto & Benjamin Trempont, 2016. "Post-reorganization survival: a semi-parametric and non-parametric analysis of firm characteristics," EconomiX Working Papers 2016-22, University of Paris Nanterre, EconomiX.
    4. Balcaen,S. & Buyze, J. & Ooghe,H., 2009. "Financial distress and firm exit: determinants of involuntary exits, voluntary liquidations and restructuring exits," Vlerick Leuven Gent Management School Working Paper Series 2009-21, Vlerick Leuven Gent Management School.
    5. Camacho-Miñano, María-del-Mar & Campa, Domenico, 2014. "Integrity of financial information as a determinant of the outcome of a bankruptcy procedure," International Review of Law and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 37(C), pages 76-85.
    6. Sofie Balcaen & Sophie Manigart & Jozefien Buyze & Hubert Ooghe, 2012. "Firm exit after distress: differentiating between bankruptcy, voluntary liquidation and M&A," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 39(4), pages 949-975, November.
    7. Leyman, Bart & Schoors, Koen J.L. & Coussement, Peter, 2011. "Does court-supervised reorganization work? Evidence from post-confirmation firm failure," International Review of Law and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 31(3), pages 149-168, September.
    8. Jaka Cepec & Peter Grajzl & Katarina Zajc, 2016. "Debt Recovery in Firm Liquidations: Do Liquidation Trustees Matter?," CESifo Working Paper Series 6034, CESifo.
    9. Blazy, Régis & Martel, Jocelyn & Nigam, Nirjhar, 2014. "The choice between informal and formal restructuring: The case of French banks facing distressed SMEs," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 44(C), pages 248-263.
    10. Verreydt, Mathias & Dewaelheyns, Nico & Van Hulle, Cynthia, 2022. "Time is money: An analysis of the time-to-failure in a flexible reorganization system," Finance Research Letters, Elsevier, vol. 46(PA).
    11. Ewelina Mruk & Inmaculada Aguiar-Díaz & Maria Victoria Ruiz-Mallorquí, 2019. "Use of formal insolvency procedure and judicial efficiency in Spain," European Journal of Law and Economics, Springer, vol. 47(3), pages 435-470, June.
    12. Bart Leyman, 2012. "The uneasy case for rehabilitating small firms under the 1997-reorganization law in Belgium: evidence from reorganization plans," European Journal of Law and Economics, Springer, vol. 34(3), pages 533-560, December.
    13. Goodwin, John & Routledge, James, 2021. "Determinants of the duration of the voluntary administration process: An unconditional quantile regression analysis," Journal of Contemporary Accounting and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 17(3).
    14. World Bank & International Finance Corporation, "undated". "Doing Business in the East African Community 2011," World Bank Publications - Reports 27390, The World Bank Group.

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Xavier Giné & Inessa Love, 2010. "Do Reorganization Costs Matter for Efficiency? Evidence from a Bankruptcy Reform in Colombia," Journal of Law and Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 53(4), pages 833-864.
    2. Leyman, Bart & Schoors, Koen J.L. & Coussement, Peter, 2011. "Does court-supervised reorganization work? Evidence from post-confirmation firm failure," International Review of Law and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 31(3), pages 149-168, September.
    3. Goodwin, John & Routledge, James, 2021. "Determinants of the duration of the voluntary administration process: An unconditional quantile regression analysis," Journal of Contemporary Accounting and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 17(3).
    4. Couwenberg, Oscar & de Jong, Abe, 2006. "It takes two to tango: An empirical tale of distressed firms and assisting banks," International Review of Law and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 26(4), pages 429-454, December.
    5. Erkki Laitinen, 2011. "Assessing viability of Finnish reorganization and bankruptcy firms," European Journal of Law and Economics, Springer, vol. 31(2), pages 167-198, April.
    6. Bart Leyman, 2012. "The uneasy case for rehabilitating small firms under the 1997-reorganization law in Belgium: evidence from reorganization plans," European Journal of Law and Economics, Springer, vol. 34(3), pages 533-560, December.
    7. Ivana Matteucci, 2017. "Information About Ourselves from Ourselves: Young Users of Wearable Technologies in Secondary School," European Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies Articles, Revistia Research and Publishing, vol. 3, September.
    8. Sofie Balcaen & Sophie Manigart & Jozefien Buyze & Hubert Ooghe, 2012. "Firm exit after distress: differentiating between bankruptcy, voluntary liquidation and M&A," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 39(4), pages 949-975, November.
    9. Timothy Fisher & Jocelyn Martel, 2012. "The Impact of Debtor-Friendly Reforms on the Performance of a Reorganization Procedure," Working Papers hal-00707359, HAL.
    10. B. Leyman & K. Schoors & P. Coussement, 2008. "Court-supervised Restructuring: Pre-bankruptcy Dynamics, Debt Structure and Debt Rescheduling," Working Papers of Faculty of Economics and Business Administration, Ghent University, Belgium 08/507, Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration.
    11. Oscar Couwenberg & Abe Jong, 2008. "Costs and recovery rates in the Dutch liquidation-based bankruptcy system," European Journal of Law and Economics, Springer, vol. 26(2), pages 105-127, October.
    12. Marianna Succurro, 2012. "Bankruptcy systems and economic performance across countries: some empirical evidence," European Journal of Law and Economics, Springer, vol. 33(1), pages 101-126, February.
    13. Régis Blazy & Bertrand Chopard & Agnès Fimayer & Jean-Daniel Guigou, 2007. "Financial versus Social Efficiency of Corporate Bankruptcy Law: the French Dilemma?," LSF Research Working Paper Series 07-02, Luxembourg School of Finance, University of Luxembourg.
    14. Bonfim, Diana & Dias, Daniel A. & Richmond, Christine, 2012. "What happens after corporate default? Stylized facts on access to credit," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 36(7), pages 2007-2025.
    15. Michelle J. White, 2005. "Economic Analysis of Corporate and Personal Bankruptcy Law," NBER Working Papers 11536, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    16. Blazy, Régis & Martel, Jocelyn & Nigam, Nirjhar, 2014. "The choice between informal and formal restructuring: The case of French banks facing distressed SMEs," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 44(C), pages 248-263.
    17. Hind Sami, 2005. "Financial Distress and Reputational Concerns," Working Papers 0509, Groupe d'Analyse et de Théorie Economique Lyon St-Étienne (GATE Lyon St-Étienne), Université de Lyon.
    18. Annabi, Amira & Breton, Michèle & François, Pascal, 2021. "Could Chapter 11 redeem itself? Wealth and welfare effects of the redemption option," International Review of Law and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 67(C).
    19. Helwege, Jean & Packer, Frank, 2003. "Determinants of the choice of bankruptcy procedure in Japan," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 12(1), pages 96-120, January.
    20. Marianna Succurro, 2008. "Bankruptcy Systems And Economic Performance Across Contries: Some Empirical Evidence," Working Papers 200801, Università della Calabria, Dipartimento di Economia, Statistica e Finanza "Giovanni Anania" - DESF.

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:irlaec:v:29:y:2009:i:4:p:375-387. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: . General contact details of provider: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/irle .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: Catherine Liu (email available below). General contact details of provider: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/irle .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.