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The value of banking relationships during a financial crisis: evidence from failures of Japanese banks

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  • Elijah Brewer
  • Hesna Genay
  • William C. Hunter
  • George G. Kaufman

Abstract

In this paper, we provide evidence on the value of banking relationships by examining the stock market valuation impact of three large bank failures in Japan in 1997 and 1998 on their clients and the clients of surviving banks. Bank failures are theorized to have adverse consequences for other firms in general, and for customers of the failed institutions in particular. Firms that are customers of the failed institution may be adversely affected because, among other things, they may lose an ongoing source of funding and need to incur the expense of search and providing financial and other information about themselves to new lenders. Hence, severance of banking ties due to a bank failure can have adverse consequences for the clients of the failed bank. In addition, firms that are not customers of the failed bank may be adversely affected because the failure may signal existing but yet unrecognized problems at other banks, ignite problems at other banks through spillover or contagion, or foretell adverse economic conditions for the economy in the region or nationwide. ; Unlike previous studies of this type, we examine not only the impact of bank failure announcements on the market valuation of the client firms of the failed banks, but the impact of the announcements on all firms including the clients of surviving banks. By also examining the stock valuation of the failure announcements for firms that did not have relationships with the failed institutions, we can identify any differences in the effects on clients and non-clients of the failed banks. This is particularly important when the distress or failure announcements occur in the midst of an on-going financial crisis, and therefore, can have strong implications for the viability of surviving banks and their relationships with client firms. ; We find that, as in previous studies, the market value of customers of the failed banks is adversely affected at the date of the failure announcements. In addition, the effects are related to the financial characteristics of the client firms and their primary banks. Firms that have greater access to alternative sources of funding experience a less severe adverse impact from bank failure announcements. Similarly, clients of banks that are more profitable, better capitalized, and have lower loan loss reserves suffer less from the failure announcements. However, we also find that these effects are not significantly different from the effects experienced by all firms in the economy. That is, the bank failures represent \"bad news\" for all firms in the economy, not just for the customers of the failed banks.

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  • Elijah Brewer & Hesna Genay & William C. Hunter & George G. Kaufman, 2002. "The value of banking relationships during a financial crisis: evidence from failures of Japanese banks," Working Paper Series WP-02-20, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago.
  • Handle: RePEc:fip:fedhwp:wp-02-20
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    Cited by:

    1. Hideaki Miyajima & Yishay Yafeh, 2003. "Japan's Banking Crisis: Who has the Most to Lose?," Discussion papers 03010, Research Institute of Economy, Trade and Industry (RIETI).
    2. Wikil Kwak & Ho-Young Lee & Vivek Mande, 2009. "Institutional Ownership and Income Smoothing by Japanese Banks through Loan Loss Provisions," Review of Pacific Basin Financial Markets and Policies (RPBFMP), World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd., vol. 12(02), pages 219-243.
    3. Hori, Masahiro, 2005. "Does bank liquidation affect client firm performance? Evidence from a bank failure in Japan," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 88(3), pages 415-420, September.
    4. Kaoru Hosono & Daisuke Miyakawa & Taisuke Uchino & Makoto Hazama & Arito Ono & Hirofumi Uchida & Iichiro Uesugi, 2016. "Natural Disasters, Damage To Banks, And Firm Investment," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 57, pages 1335-1370, November.
    5. Fukuda, Shin-ichi & Koibuchi, Satoshi, 2007. "The impacts of "shock therapy" on large and small clients: Experiences from two large bank failures in Japan," Pacific-Basin Finance Journal, Elsevier, vol. 15(5), pages 434-451, November.
    6. Numata, Shingo & Takeda, Fumiko, 2010. "Stock market reactions to audit failure in Japan: The case of Kanebo and ChuoAoyama," The International Journal of Accounting, Elsevier, vol. 45(2), pages 175-199, June.
    7. HORI Masahiro, 2004. "Does Bank Liquidation Affect Client Firm Performance? Evidence from a Main Bank Failure in Japan," ESRI Discussion paper series 102, Economic and Social Research Institute (ESRI).
    8. Wei-Huei Hsu & Abdullah Mamun & Lawrence C. Rose, 2010. "Lead bank quality and adverse rating announcements," Studies in Economics and Finance, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 27(4), pages 340-357, October.
    9. Abildgren, Kim & Vølund Buchholst, Birgitte & Staghøj, Jonas, 2013. "Bank-firm relationships and the survival of non-financial firms during the financial crisis 2008-2009," Working Paper Series 1516, European Central Bank.
    10. Shin‐Ichi Fukuda & Satoshi Koibuchi, 2006. "The Impacts Of “Shock Therapy” Under A Banking Crisis: Experiences From Three Large Bank Failures In Japan," The Japanese Economic Review, Japanese Economic Association, vol. 57(2), pages 232-256, June.
    11. Tumer-Alkan, G., 2008. "Essays on banking," Other publications TiSEM 8d5ec521-4702-4e75-bc79-a, Tilburg University, School of Economics and Management.
    12. Carow, Kenneth A. & Kane, Edward J. & Narayanan, Rajesh P., 2006. "How Have Borrowers Fared in Banking Megamergers?," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 38(3), pages 821-836, April.
    13. Masahiro Kawai, 2005. "Reform of the Japanese banking system," International Economics and Economic Policy, Springer, vol. 2(4), pages 307-335, December.
    14. David C. Smith, 2003. "Loans to Japanese borrowers," International Finance Discussion Papers 769, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
    15. Arikawa Yasuhiro & Miyajima Hideaki, 2005. "Relationship Banking in post Bubble Japan: Co-existence of soft-and hard budget constraint," Discussion papers 05015, Research Institute of Economy, Trade and Industry (RIETI).
    16. Satoshi Koibuchi, 2012. "Debt Forgiveness during Japan’s Lost Decade," Chapters, in: James R. Barth & Chen Lin & Clas Wihlborg (ed.), Research Handbook on International Banking and Governance, chapter 32, Edward Elgar Publishing.
    17. Wall, Larry D. & Eisenbeis, Robert A. & Frame, W. Scott, 2005. "Resolving large financial intermediaries: Banks versus housing enterprises," Journal of Financial Stability, Elsevier, vol. 1(3), pages 386-425, April.
    18. Shin-ichi Fukuda & Satoshi Koibuchi, 2006. "The Impacts of "Shock Therapy" on Large and Small Clients:Experiences from Two Large Bank Failures in Japan (Forthcoming in "Pacific-Basin Finance Journal". )," CARF F-Series CARF-F-077, Center for Advanced Research in Finance, Faculty of Economics, The University of Tokyo.
    19. Naoaki Minamihashi, 2011. "Credit Crunch Caused by Bank Failures and Self‐Selection Behavior in Lending Markets," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 43(1), pages 133-161, February.
    20. KIM, Hyonok & WILCOX, James A. & YASUDA, Yukihiro, 2016. "Shocks and Shock Absorbers in Japanese Bonds and Banks During the Global Financial Crisis," Working Paper Series G-1-16, Hitotsubashi University Center for Financial Research.
    21. Shin-ichi Fukuda & Satoshi Koibuchi, 2005. "The Impacts of "Shock Therapy" under a Banking Crisis: Experiences from Three Large Bank Failures in Japan (Subsequently published in "Japanese Economic Review" Vol. 57, No. 2 (Jan," CARF F-Series CARF-F-038, Center for Advanced Research in Finance, Faculty of Economics, The University of Tokyo.
    22. Breuer, Janice Boucher, 2006. "Problem bank loans, conflicts of interest, and institutions," Journal of Financial Stability, Elsevier, vol. 2(3), pages 266-285, October.
    23. Miyajima, Hideaki & Yafeh, Yishay, 2007. "Japan's banking crisis: An event-study perspective," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 31(9), pages 2866-2885, September.

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    Financial crises - Japan; Bank failures;

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