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Gender Differences in Time Poverty in Rural Mozambique


  • Diksha Arora


This study examines the nature and extent of time poverty experienced by men and women in subsistence households in Mozambique. Gender roles, shaped by patriarchal norms, place heavy work obligations on women. Time-use data from a primary household survey in Mozambique is used for this analysis. The main findings suggest that womens labor allocation to economic activities is comparable to that of men. Household chores and care work are womens responsibility, which they perform with minimal assistance from men. The heavy burden of responsibilities leave women time poorer, compared to 50% of women, only 8% of men face time constraints. Womens time poverty worsens when the burden of simultaneous care work is taken into account. Not only women work longer hours, due to multi-tasking, the work tends to be more taxing. The examination of determinants of time poverty show that measures of bargaining power like assets and education do not necessarily affect time poverty faced by women.

Suggested Citation

  • Diksha Arora, 2014. "Gender Differences in Time Poverty in Rural Mozambique," Working Paper Series, Department of Economics, University of Utah 2014_05, University of Utah, Department of Economics.
  • Handle: RePEc:uta:papers:2014_05

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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Nazier, Hanan & Ezzat, Asmaa, 2022. "Gender differences and time allocation: A comparative analysis of Egypt and Tunisia," The Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 85(C), pages 174-193.
    2. Gudina Terefe Tucho & Henri C. Moll & Anton J. M. Schoot Uiterkamp & Sanderine Nonhebel, 2016. "Problems with Biogas Implementation in Developing Countries from the Perspective of Labor Requirements," Energies, MDPI, vol. 9(9), pages 1-16, September.
    3. Asmaa Ezzat & Hanan Nazier, 2019. "Time poverty in Egypt and Tunisia: is there a gender gap?," International Journal of Development Issues, Emerald Group Publishing Limited, vol. 18(3), pages 261-289, August.

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    More about this item


    intra-household allocation; time allocation; poverty; gender; Africa JEL Classification: D13; J22; I3; J16; O55;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • D13 - Microeconomics - - Household Behavior - - - Household Production and Intrahouse Allocation
    • J22 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor - - - Time Allocation and Labor Supply
    • I3 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Welfare, Well-Being, and Poverty
    • J16 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Economics of Gender; Non-labor Discrimination
    • O55 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economywide Country Studies - - - Africa

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