Exchange rate exposure: A nonparametric approach
The typical conclusion reached when researchers examine exchange rate exposure using a linear model is that only a few firms are exposed. This finding is puzzling since institutional knowledge and basic finance theory points to a larger effect. In this paper, we compare results obtained using a linear approach with those from nonlinear, partially parametric and nonparametric models. Our data consist of nonfinancial firms in five emerging market countries and the US. Among firms that were not found to have a linear exposure, we find that a considerable proportion of these are exposed when nonlinear, partially parametric or nonparametric models are used. The increase in exposure is most striking when a nonparametric model is used. We also find evidence that firms' hedging activities decrease linear exposure but do not affect nonparametric exposure.
|Date of creation:||Jun 2009|
|Date of revision:|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: University of Connecticut 365 Fairfield Way, Unit 1063 Storrs, CT 06269-1063|
Phone: (860) 486-4889
Fax: (860) 486-4463
Web page: http://www.econ.uconn.edu/
More information through EDIRC
References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Pagan,Adrian & Ullah,Aman, 1999.
Cambridge University Press, number 9780521355643, November.
- Koutmos, Gregory & Martin, Anna D., 2003. "Asymmetric exchange rate exposure: theory and evidence," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 22(3), pages 365-383, June.
- Gordon M. Bodnar & Gregory S. Hayt & Richard C. Marston, 1998. "1998 Wharton Survey of Financial Risk Management by US Non-Financial Firms," Financial Management, Financial Management Association, vol. 27(4), Winter.
- Ware, Roger & Winter, Ralph, 1988. "Forward markets, currency options and the hedging of foreign exchange risk," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 25(3-4), pages 291-302, November.
- Kho, Bong-Chan & Stulz, Rene M., 2000.
"Banks, the IMF, and the Asian crisis,"
Pacific-Basin Finance Journal,
Elsevier, vol. 8(2), pages 177-216, May.
- Bartov, Eli & Bodnar, Gordon M, 1994. " Firm Valuation, Earnings Expectations, and the Exchange-Rate Exposure Effect," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 49(5), pages 1755-85, December.
- Aline Muller & Willem F. C. Verschoor, 2006. "European Foreign Exchange Risk Exposure," European Financial Management, European Financial Management Association, vol. 12(2), pages 195-220.
- Bartram, Sohnke M., 2004.
"Linear and nonlinear foreign exchange rate exposures of German nonfinancial corporations,"
Journal of International Money and Finance,
Elsevier, vol. 23(4), pages 673-699, June.
- Sohnke M. Bartram, 2002. "Linear and Nonlinear Foreign Exchange Rate Exposures of German Nonfinancial Corporations," Finance 0207001, EconWPA.
- Nance, Deana R & Smith, Clifford W, Jr & Smithson, Charles W, 1993. " On the Determinants of Corporate Hedging," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 48(1), pages 267-84, March.
- Bartram, Söhnke M. & Bodnar, Gordon, 2005.
"The Exchange Rate Exposure Puzzle,"
6482, University Library of Munich, Germany.
- Bruce Kogut & Nalin Kulatilaka, 1994. "Operating Flexibility, Global Manufacturing, and the Option Value of a Multinational Network," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 40(1), pages 123-139, January.
- Newey, Whitney K & West, Kenneth D, 1987.
"A Simple, Positive Semi-definite, Heteroskedasticity and Autocorrelation Consistent Covariance Matrix,"
Econometric Society, vol. 55(3), pages 703-08, May.
- Newey, Whitney & West, Kenneth, 2014. "A simple, positive semi-definite, heteroscedasticity and autocorrelation consistent covariance matrix," Applied Econometrics, Publishing House "SINERGIA PRESS", vol. 33(1), pages 125-132.
- Whitney K. Newey & Kenneth D. West, 1986. "A Simple, Positive Semi-Definite, Heteroskedasticity and AutocorrelationConsistent Covariance Matrix," NBER Technical Working Papers 0055, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Broll, Udo & Chow, Kong Wing & Wong, Kit Pong, 2001. "Hedging and Nonlinear Risk Exposure," Oxford Economic Papers, Oxford University Press, vol. 53(2), pages 281-96, April.
- Jongmoo Jay Choi & Anita Mehra Prasad, 1995. "Exchange Risk Sensitivity and Its Determinants: A Firm and Industry Analysis of U.S. Multinationals," Financial Management, Financial Management Association, vol. 24(3), Fall.
- Tai, Chu-Sheng, 2005. "Asymmetric currency exposure of US bank stock returns," Journal of Multinational Financial Management, Elsevier, vol. 15(4-5), pages 455-472, October.
- Gregory Koutmos & Johan Knif, 2002. "Estimating Systematic Risk Using Time Varying Distributions," European Financial Management, European Financial Management Association, vol. 8(1), pages 59-73.
- C. R. McKenzie & Michael McAleer, 1994.
"On The Effects Of Misspecification Errors In Models With Generated Regressors,"
Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics,
Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 56(4), pages 441-455, November.
- McKenzie, C R & McAleer, Michael, 1994. "On the Effects of Misspecification Errors in Models with Generated Regressors," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 56(4), pages 441-55, November.
- Gordon M. Bodnar & M.H. Franco Wong, 2003. "Estimating Exchange Rate Exposures: Issues in Model Structure," Financial Management, Financial Management Association, vol. 32(1), Spring.
- Jorion, Philippe, 1990. "The Exchange-Rate Exposure of U.S. Multinationals," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 63(3), pages 331-45, July.
- Parsley, David C. & Popper, Helen A., 2006. "Exchange rate pegs and foreign exchange exposure in East and South East Asia," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 25(6), pages 992-1009, October.
- Taylor, Mark P. & Peel, David A., 2000. "Nonlinear adjustment, long-run equilibrium and exchange rate fundamentals," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 19(1), pages 33-53, February.
- Chow, Edward H. & Chen, Hung-Ling, 1998. "The determinants of foreign exchange rate exposure: Evidence on Japanese firms1," Pacific-Basin Finance Journal, Elsevier, vol. 6(1-2), pages 153-174, May.
- Muller, Aline & Verschoor, Willem F.C., 2007. "Asian foreign exchange risk exposure," Journal of the Japanese and International Economies, Elsevier, vol. 21(1), pages 16-37, March.
- Taylor, Mark P & Peel, David A & Sarno, Lucio, 2001.
"Nonlinear Mean-Reversion in Real Exchange Rates: Toward a Solution to the Purchasing Power Parity Puzzles,"
International Economic Review,
Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 42(4), pages 1015-42, November.
- Peel, David & Sarno, Lucio & Taylor, Mark P, 2001. "Nonlinear Mean-Reversion in Real Exchange Rates: Towards a Solution to the Purchasing Power Parity Puzzles," CEPR Discussion Papers 2658, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Allayannis, George & Ofek, Eli, 2001. "Exchange rate exposure, hedging, and the use of foreign currency derivatives," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 20(2), pages 273-296, April.
- Martin Glaum & Marko Brunner & Holger Himmel, 2000. "The DAX and the Dollar: The Economic Exchange Rate Exposure of German Corporations," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 31(4), pages 715-724, December.
- Priestley, Richard & Odegaard, Bernt Arne, 2007. "Linear and nonlinear exchange rate exposure," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 26(6), pages 1016-1037, October.
- Di Iorio, Amalia & Faff, Robert, 2000. "An analysis of asymmetry in foreign currency exposure of the Australian equities market," Journal of Multinational Financial Management, Elsevier, vol. 10(2), pages 133-159, June.
- Chue, Timothy K. & Cook, David, 2008. "Emerging market exchange rate exposure," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 32(7), pages 1349-1362, July.
- Christos Pantzalis & Betty J Simkins & Paul A Laux, 2001. "Operational Hedges and the Foreign Exchange Exposure of U.S. Multinational Corporations," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 32(4), pages 793-812, December.
- Edward H. Chow & Wayne Y. Lee & Michael E. Solt, 1997. "The Economic Exposure Of U.S. Multinational Firms," Journal of Financial Research, Southern Finance Association;Southwestern Finance Association, vol. 20(2), pages 191-210, 06.
- Jongen, R. & Muller, A. & Verschoor, W.F.C., 2012. "Using survey data to resolve the exchange risk exposure puzzle: Evidence from U.S. multinational firms," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 31(2), pages 148-169.
- Li, Q. & Wang, Suojin, 1998. "A simple consistent bootstrap test for a parametric regression function," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 87(1), pages 145-165, August.
- Allayannis, George & Ihrig, Jane, 2001. "Exposure and Markups," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 14(3), pages 805-35.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:uct:uconnp:2009-18. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Mark McConnel)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.