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Exchange Rate Exposure

  • Kathryn M.E. Dominguez
  • Linda L. Tesar

In this paper we examine the relationship between exchange rate movements and firm value. We estimate the exchange rate exposure of publicly listed firms in a sample of eight (non-US) industrialized and emerging markets, and find that a significant percentage of these firms are indeed exposed. These results differ substantially from most previous studies in the literature that find little evidence of exposure. In robustness checks we find that: (i) the choice of exchange rate matters, and using the trade-weighted exchange rate is likely to understate the extent of exposure, (ii) conditioning on the value-weighted vs. the equally-weighted market index has little effect on estimated exposure, while conditioning on the international index does change the estimate of exposure, (iii) the extent of exposure is not a result of a spurious correlation between random variables with high variances, (iv) exposure increases with the return horizon, (v) within a country and within an industry, exposure coefficients are roughly evenly split between positive and negative values, (vi) averaging across the (absolute value of the) significant exposure coefficients in our sample of countries, we find an exposure coefficient of about 0.5, (vii) the extent of exposure is not sensitive to the sample period, but the set of firms that is exposed does vary over time, and (viii) the sign of the exposure coefficients changes across subperiods for about half of the firms of our sample. We find that exposure is not systematically related to firm size, industry affiliation, multinational status, foreign sales, international assets or industry-level trade.

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File URL: http://www.nber.org/papers/w8453.pdf
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Paper provided by National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc in its series NBER Working Papers with number 8453.

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Date of creation: Sep 2001
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Publication status: published as Dominguez, Kathryn M. E. and Linda L. Tesar. "Exchange Rate Exposure," Journal of International Economics, 2006, v68(1,Jan), 188-218.
Handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:8453
Note: AP IFM
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  1. Dominguez, Kathryn M., 1998. "The Dollar Exposure of Japanese Companies," Journal of the Japanese and International Economies, Elsevier, vol. 12(4), pages 388-405, December.
  2. John M. Griffin & Rene M. Stulz, 1997. "International Competition and Exchange Rate Shocks: A Cross-Country Industry Analysis of Stock Returns," NBER Working Papers 6243, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  3. Gordon M. Bodnar & M.H. Franco Wong, 2003. "Estimating Exchange Rate Exposures: Issues in Model Structure," Financial Management, Financial Management Association, vol. 32(1), Spring.
  4. Allayannis, George & Ihrig, Jane, 2001. "Exposure and Markups," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 14(3), pages 805-35.
  5. Hodder, James E., 1982. "Exposure to exchange-rate movements," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 13(3-4), pages 375-386, November.
  6. Jeffrey Frankel & Andrew Rose, 2002. "An Estimate Of The Effect Of Common Currencies On Trade And Income," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 117(2), pages 437-466, May.
  7. George Allayannis & Jane Ihrig, 2000. "The effect of markups on the exchange rate exposure of stock returns," International Finance Discussion Papers 661, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
  8. Gordon M. Bodnar & Bernard Dumas & Richard C. Marston, 2002. "Pass-through and Exposure," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 57(1), pages 199-231, 02.
  9. Bodnar, Gordon M. & Weintrop, Joseph, 1997. "The valuation of the foreign income of US multinational firms: a growth opportunities perspective," Journal of Accounting and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 24(1), pages 69-97, December.
  10. Jose Campa & Linda S. Goldberg, 1996. "Investment, pass-through, and exchange rates: a cross-country comparison," Staff Reports 14, Federal Reserve Bank of New York.
  11. Nance, Deana R & Smith, Clifford W, Jr & Smithson, Charles W, 1993. " On the Determinants of Corporate Hedging," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 48(1), pages 267-84, March.
  12. Marston, Richard C., 2001. "The effects of industry structure on economic exposure," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 20(2), pages 149-164, April.
  13. Goldberg, L.S. & Campa, J., 1993. "Investment in Manufacturing, Exchange-Rate and External Exposure," Working Papers 93-18, C.V. Starr Center for Applied Economics, New York University.
  14. Kristin J. Forbes, 2001. "Are Trade Linkages Important Determinants of Country Vulnerability to Crises?," NBER Working Papers 8194, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  15. Jorion, Philippe, 1990. "The Exchange-Rate Exposure of U.S. Multinationals," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 63(3), pages 331-45, July.
  16. Bodnar, Gordan M. & Marston, Richard C., 2000. "A Simple Model of Foreign Exchange Exposure," Working Papers 00-3, University of Pennsylvania, Wharton School, Weiss Center.
  17. Bartov, Eli & Bodnar, Gordon M. & Kaul, Aditya, 1996. "Exchange rate variability and the riskiness of U.S. multinational firms: Evidence from the breakdown of the Bretton Woods system," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 42(1), pages 105-132, September.
  18. Kathryn M.E. Dominguez & Linda L. Tesar, 2001. "Trade and Exposure," NBER Working Papers 8129, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  19. Gordon M. Bodnar & M.H. Franco Wong, 2000. "Estimating Exchange Rate Exposures: Some "Weighty" Issues," NBER Working Papers 7497, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  20. Bodnar, Gordon M. & Gentry, William M., 1993. "Exchange rate exposure and industry characteristics: evidence from Canada, Japan, and the USA," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 12(1), pages 29-45, February.
  21. Joaquim Oliveira Martins & Stefano Scarpetta & Dirk Pilat, 1996. "Mark-Up Ratios in Manufacturing Industries: Estimates for 14 OECD Countries," OECD Economics Department Working Papers 162, OECD Publishing.
  22. Nucci, Francesco & Pozzolo, Alberto F., 2001. "Investment and the exchange rate: An analysis with firm-level panel data," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 45(2), pages 259-283, February.
  23. Roeger, Werner, 1995. "Can Imperfect Competition Explain the Difference between Primal and Dual Productivity Measures? Estimates for U.S. Manufacturing," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 103(2), pages 316-30, April.
  24. Kathryn M.E. Dominguez & Linda L. Tesar, 2001. "A Re-Examination of Exchange Rate Exposure," NBER Working Papers 8128, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  25. Bartov, Eli & Bodnar, Gordon M, 1994. " Firm Valuation, Earnings Expectations, and the Exchange-Rate Exposure Effect," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 49(5), pages 1755-85, December.
  26. George Allayannis & Gregory W. Brown & Leora F. Klapper, 2003. "Capital Structure and Financial Risk: Evidence from Foreign Debt Use in East Asia," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 58(6), pages 2667-2710, December.
  27. Edward H. Chow & Wayne Y. Lee & Michael E. Solt, 1997. "The Economic Exposure Of U.S. Multinational Firms," Journal of Financial Research, Southern Finance Association;Southwestern Finance Association, vol. 20(2), pages 191-210, 06.
  28. Chamberlain, Sandra & Howe, John S. & Popper, Helen, 1997. "The exchange rate exposure of U.S. and Japanese banking institutions," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 21(6), pages 871-892, June.
  29. Jia He & Lilian K. Ng, 1998. "The Foreign Exchange Exposure of Japanese Multinational Corporations," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 53(2), pages 733-753, 04.
  30. Jose Campa & Linda S. Goldberg, 1997. "The evolving external orientation of manufacturing: a profile of four countries," Economic Policy Review, Federal Reserve Bank of New York, issue Jul, pages 53-81.
  31. Williamson, Rohan, 2001. "Exchange rate exposure and competition: evidence from the automotive industry," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 59(3), pages 441-475, March.
  32. Chow, Edward H & Lee, Wayne Y & Solt, Michael E, 1997. "The Exchange-Rate Risk Exposure of Asset Returns," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 70(1), pages 105-23, January.
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