Did China's Tax-for-Fee Reform Improve Farmers' Welfare in Rural Areas?
China enacted a rural tax reform â€“ the "Tax-for-Fee Reform" (TFR) â€“ in the late 1990s. A crucial but unanswered question is whether this reform improved farmers' welfare in rural areas. This paper uses village-level survey data from the Chinese Household Income Project in order to examine the effect of the TFR on farmers' direct and indirect welfare. We find no evidence that the direct welfare effects improved farmer's net income. In contrast, the reform appears to have reduced the villages' financing capacity, and hence to have lowered their overall expenditures. These indirect effects have had significant negative impacts on farmers' welfare.
|Date of creation:||Feb 2013|
|Date of revision:|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: |
Phone: (504) 865-5321
Fax: (504) 865-5869
Web page: http://econ.tulane.edu
More information through EDIRC
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Ran Tao & Ping Qin, 2007. "How Has Rural Tax Reform Affected Farmers and Local Governance in China?," China & World Economy, Institute of World Economics and Politics, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, vol. 15(3), pages 19-32.
- Terry Sicular & Yue Ximing & Björn Gustafsson & Li Shi, 2007.
"The Urban-Rural Income Gap And Inequality In China,"
Review of Income and Wealth,
International Association for Research in Income and Wealth, vol. 53(1), pages 93-126, 03.
- Sicular, Terry & Yue, Ximing & Gustafsson, Bjorn & Li, Shi, 2006. "The Urban-Rural Income Gap and Inequality in China," Working Paper Series RP2006/135, World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER).
- Marco Caliendo & Sabine Kopeinig, 2008.
"Some Practical Guidance For The Implementation Of Propensity Score Matching,"
Journal of Economic Surveys,
Wiley Blackwell, vol. 22(1), pages 31-72, 02.
- Marco Caliendo & Sabine Kopeinig, 2005. "Some Practical Guidance for the Implementation of Propensity Score Matching," Discussion Papers of DIW Berlin 485, DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research.
- Caliendo, Marco & Kopeinig, Sabine, 2005. "Some Practical Guidance for the Implementation of Propensity Score Matching," IZA Discussion Papers 1588, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Meng, Xiangyi & Zhang, Li, 2011. "Democratic participation, fiscal reform and local governance: Empirical evidence on Chinese villages," China Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 22(1), pages 88-97, March.
- Mushtaq, Shahbaz & Khan, Shahbaz & Dawe, David & Hanjra, Munir A. & Hafeez, Mohsin & Asghar, Muhammad Nadeem, 2008. "Evaluating the impact of Tax-for-Fee reform (Fei Gai Shui) on water resources and agriculture production in the Zhanghe Irrigation System, China," Food Policy, Elsevier, vol. 33(6), pages 576-586, December.
- Rajeev H. Dehejia & Sadek Wahba, 2002.
"Propensity Score-Matching Methods For Nonexperimental Causal Studies,"
The Review of Economics and Statistics,
MIT Press, vol. 84(1), pages 151-161, February.
- Rajeev H. Dehejia & Sadek Wahba, 1998. "Propensity Score Matching Methods for Non-experimental Causal Studies," NBER Working Papers 6829, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Haizheng Li & Steven Zahniser, 2002. "The Determinants of Temporary Rural-to-Urban Migration in China," Urban Studies, Urban Studies Journal Limited, vol. 39(12), pages 2219-2235, November.
- Barbara Sianesi, 2004. "An Evaluation of the Swedish System of Active Labor Market Programs in the 1990s," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 86(1), pages 133-155, February.
- Joseph G. Altonji & Todd E. Elder & Christopher R. Taber, 2005.
"Selection on Observed and Unobserved Variables: Assessing the Effectiveness of Catholic Schools,"
Journal of Political Economy,
University of Chicago Press, vol. 113(1), pages 151-184, February.
- Joseph G. Altonji & Todd E. Elder & Christopher R. Taber, 2000. "Selection on Observed and Unobserved Variables: Assessing the Effectiveness of Catholic Schools," NBER Working Papers 7831, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Alan de Brauw & Jikun Huang & Scott Rozelle, 2004. "The sequencing of reform policies in China's agricultural transition," The Economics of Transition, The European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, vol. 12(3), pages 427-465, 09.
- Zhang, Xiaobo & Fan, Shenggen & Zhang, Linxiu & Huang, Jikun, 2002.
"Local governance and public goods provision in rural China:,"
EPTD discussion papers
93, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
- Zhang, Xiaobo & Fan, Shenggen & Zhang, Linxiu & Huang, Jikun, 2004. "Local governance and public goods provision in rural China," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 88(12), pages 2857-2871, December.
- Justin Yifu Lin & Mingxing Liu, 2007. "Rural Informal Taxation in China: Historical Evolution and an Analytic Framework," China & World Economy, Institute of World Economics and Politics, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, vol. 15(3), pages 1-18.
- Zhao Yi, 2006. "The Main Problems and Countermeasures of China's Rural Financial System," Chinese Economy, M.E. Sharpe, Inc., vol. 39(2), pages 57-70, April.
- Lin, Justin Yifu, 1992. "Rural Reforms and Agricultural Growth in China," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 82(1), pages 34-51, March.
- Lechner, Michael, 1999. "Earnings and Employment Effects of Continuous Off-the-Job Training in East Germany after Unification," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 17(1), pages 74-90, January.
- Luo, Renfu & Zhang, Linxiu & Huang, Jikun & Rozelle, Scott, 2007. "Elections, fiscal reform and public goods provision in rural China," Journal of Comparative Economics, Elsevier, vol. 35(3), pages 583-611, September.
- James Heckman & Hidehiko Ichimura & Jeffrey Smith & Petra Todd, 1998.
"Characterizing Selection Bias Using Experimental Data,"
Econometric Society, vol. 66(5), pages 1017-1098, September.
- James Heckman & Hidehiko Ichimura & Jeffrey Smith & Petra Todd, 1998. "Characterizing Selection Bias Using Experimental Data," NBER Working Papers 6699, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- A. Smith, Jeffrey & E. Todd, Petra, 2005. "Does matching overcome LaLonde's critique of nonexperimental estimators?," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 125(1-2), pages 305-353.
- Lee, Myoung-jae, 2005. "Micro-Econometrics for Policy, Program and Treatment Effects," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, number 9780199267699, March.
- Gustafsson, Bjorn & Shi, Li, 2002. "Income inequality within and across counties in rural China 1988 and 1995," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 69(1), pages 179-204, October.
- Zhihua Zhang & Jorge Martinez-Vazquez, 2003. "The System of Equalization Transfers in China," International Center for Public Policy Working Paper Series, at AYSPS, GSU paper0312, International Center for Public Policy, Andrew Young School of Policy Studies, Georgia State University.
- Heckman, James J & Ichimura, Hidehiko & Todd, Petra E, 1997. "Matching as an Econometric Evaluation Estimator: Evidence from Evaluating a Job Training Programme," Review of Economic Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 64(4), pages 605-54, October.
- Jeffrey Smith & Petra Todd, 2003. "Does Matching Overcome Lalonde's Critique of Nonexperimental Estimators?," University of Western Ontario, CIBC Centre for Human Capital and Productivity Working Papers 20035, University of Western Ontario, CIBC Centre for Human Capital and Productivity.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:tul:wpaper:1305. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Sean Higgins)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.