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Ordre et désordre dans l'échange international: Une revue de littérature

Author

Listed:
  • Guillaume Daudin
  • Jean-Luc Gaffard

    (Observatoire français des conjonctures économiques)

  • Francesco Saraceno

    (Observatoire français des conjonctures économiques)

Abstract

Il en est du commerce international comme du progrès technique : de faibles performances en matière de croissance et d’emploi, quand elles surviennent, lui sont facilement attribuées. Cet article rappelle que l’ouverture au commerce international, comme le progrès technique, crée l’opportunité de mieux allouer les ressources et de créer des richesses supplémentaires. La réalisation de cette opportunité dépend néanmoins largement des conditions qui président à la transition ainsi engagée. Ce serait une erreur de considérer que les avantages de l’ouverture au commerce international peuvent automatiquement être obtenus sans heurts ni conflits. La théorie du commerce international enseigne qu’il peut exister un conflit de répartition qui fait que les gains à l’échange ne profitent pas à tous dans un même pays. Des inégalités se forment et des catégories sociales entières enregistrent des pertes qu’il est difficile de compenser. Par ailleurs, des conflits peuvent aussi se produire entre nations. Si un progrès technique différencié met en cause l’avantage comparatif précédemment détenu par l’un des partenaires, ce que gagne l’un, l’autre le perd, alors même que le revenu mondial augmente. Toutefois, les écarts de performance évoluent sans cesse. Les spécialisations induites par des hétérogénéités en termes de coût de production ou de transport et d’externalités créent inévitablement des différentiels de croissance qui font que certains pays progressent plus vite que d’autres. Ces différentiels entretiennent un rapport ambigu avec le degré d’ouverture à l’échange international. La raison en est claire. Les conditions de l’ouverture comptent davantage que l’ouverture elle-même. Aussi est-il essentiel de connaître les conditions dans lesquelles nations et firmes s’adaptent à un changement intervenu dans le degré d’ouverture au commerce international.

Suggested Citation

  • Guillaume Daudin & Jean-Luc Gaffard & Francesco Saraceno, 2007. "Ordre et désordre dans l'échange international: Une revue de littérature," Sciences Po publications info:hdl:2441/3201, Sciences Po.
  • Handle: RePEc:spo:wpmain:info:hdl:2441/3201
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    More about this item

    Keywords

    échange international; commerce international; croissance; emploi;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • F00 - International Economics - - General - - - General
    • F02 - International Economics - - General - - - International Economic Order and Integration
    • F10 - International Economics - - Trade - - - General

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