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Ownership and control: dissecting the pyramid

Author

Listed:
  • Ariane Chapelle
  • Ariane Szafarz

Abstract

Pyramids, cross-ownership, rings and other complex features are frequent in the European and Japanese industrial world. The dissection of these structures requires a proper measurement of indirect shareholdings. While some authors use the (generally overestimated) data coming from legal ownership declarations, Ellerman (1991) and Flath (1992), Baldone et al. (1997) use the input-output matrix technology applied to raw ownership data. This paper goes a step further by adding control considerations based on the majority voting rule. The analysis moves from integrated ownership towards integrated control (including chain effects), then defines a control ratio for ultimate shareholders of any firm. The methodology is illustrated on Albert Frère's pyramidal empire. By offering a way to evaluate control leverages, this paper provides a useful tool for empirical research in corporate governance.

Suggested Citation

  • Ariane Chapelle & Ariane Szafarz, 2002. "Ownership and control: dissecting the pyramid," Working Papers CEB 03-002.RS, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles.
  • Handle: RePEc:sol:wpaper:03-002
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    File URL: https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/10001/1/ac-0036.pdf
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    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Michael C. Jensen, 2010. "The Modern Industrial Revolution, Exit, and the Failure of Internal Control Systems," Journal of Applied Corporate Finance, Morgan Stanley, vol. 22(1), pages 43-58.
    2. Ariane Chapelle & Marco Becht, 1997. "Ownership and control in Belgium," ULB Institutional Repository 2013/9979, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles.
    3. repec:hrv:faseco:30728046 is not listed on IDEAS
    4. Rafael La Porta & Florencio Lopez-de-Silanes & Andrei Shleifer & Robert W. Vishny, 1998. "Law and Finance," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 106(6), pages 1113-1155, December.
    5. Shleifer, Andrei & Vishny, Robert W, 1997. " A Survey of Corporate Governance," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 52(2), pages 737-783, June.
    6. Rafael La Porta & Florencio Lopez-De-Silanes & Andrei Shleifer, 1999. "Corporate Ownership Around the World," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 54(2), pages 471-517, April.
    7. repec:hrv:faseco:30747162 is not listed on IDEAS
    8. Claessens, Stijn & Djankov, Simeon & Lang, Larry H. P., 2000. "The separation of ownership and control in East Asian Corporations," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 58(1-2), pages 81-112.
    9. Flath, David, 1992. "Indirect shareholding within Japan's business groups," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 38(2), pages 223-227, February.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Sabri Boubaker & Florence Labégorre, 2008. "Le recours aux leviers de contrôle:le cas des sociétés cotées françaises," Revue Finance Contrôle Stratégie, revues.org, vol. 11(3), pages 95-124, September.
    2. Luis H Gutiérrez & Carlos Pombo, 2005. "Corporate Valuation and Governance: Evidence from Colombia," BORRADORES DE INVESTIGACIÓN 002203, UNIVERSIDAD DEL ROSARIO.
    3. Luis H. Gutiérrez & Carlos Pombo, 2005. "Valuación y gobierno corporativo: elementos de juicio de Colombia," Research Department Publications 3217, Inter-American Development Bank, Research Department.
    4. Carlos Pombo & Luis H. Gutiérrez, 2007. "Corporate Governance and Firm Valuation in Colombia," Research Department Publications 4470, Inter-American Development Bank, Research Department.
    5. Gutierrez, Luis H. & Pombo, Carlos & Taborda, Rodrigo, 2008. "Ownership and control in Colombian corporations," The Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 48(1), pages 22-47, February.
    6. Johan Devriese & Mathias Dewatripont & Dirk Heremans & Grégory Nguyen, 2004. "Corporate governance, regulation and supervision of banks," Financial Stability Review, National Bank of Belgium, vol. 2(1), pages 95-120, June.
    7. T. Biebuyck & Ariane Chapelle & Ariane Szafarz, 2002. "Les leviers de contrôle des actionnaires majoritaires," Working Papers CEB 03-001.RS, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles.
    8. Luis H. Gutiérrez & Carlos Pombo & Rodrigo Taborda, 2005. "Propiedad y control en empresas colombianas," Research Department Publications 3221, Inter-American Development Bank, Research Department.
    9. Carlos Pombo & Luis H. Gutiérrez, 2007. "Gestión empresarial y valuación de empresas en Colombia," Research Department Publications 4471, Inter-American Development Bank, Research Department.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Integrated ownership; Corporate control; Corporate governance.;

    JEL classification:

    • J33 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Wages, Compensation, and Labor Costs - - - Compensation Packages; Payment Methods
    • J41 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Particular Labor Markets - - - Labor Contracts
    • M12 - Business Administration and Business Economics; Marketing; Accounting; Personnel Economics - - Business Administration - - - Personnel Management; Executives; Executive Compensation

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