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Separation between ownership and control: where do we stand?

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  • Ariane Chapelle

Abstract

Complex structure of ownership like cross-ownership, rings, and pyramids are common in Continental Europe, Eastern Europe, and in Asia. This paper aims at dissecting these complex features by a proper measurement of direct and indirect holdings. Building on Brioschi et al. (1989), we use the input-output matrix methodology and we add control considerations in the matrix calculations to derive a straightforward method of quantifying the separation between ownership and control for a firm or a shareholder, named the "separation ratio". After giving an overview of the full ownership structure of the listed Belgian companies, we present and apply our method to a database of more than 800 companies and individuals linked to the Belgian listed firms. Next, we replicate the approach with data from several European countries and the United States. These international comparisons allow evaluating the interactions between the economic environment of a country, and its corporate governance features.

Suggested Citation

  • Ariane Chapelle, 2004. "Separation between ownership and control: where do we stand?," ULB Institutional Repository 2013/9941, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles.
  • Handle: RePEc:ulb:ulbeco:2013/9941
    Note: SCOPUS: ar.j
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Michael C. Jensen, 2010. "The Modern Industrial Revolution, Exit, and the Failure of Internal Control Systems," Journal of Applied Corporate Finance, Morgan Stanley, vol. 22(1), pages 43-58.
    2. Renneboog, Luc, 2000. "Ownership, managerial control and the governance of companies listed on the Brussels stock exchange," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 24(12), pages 1959-1995, December.
    3. Ariane Chapelle & Marco Becht, 1997. "Ownership and control in Belgium," ULB Institutional Repository 2013/9979, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles.
    4. La Porta, Rafael & Florencio Lopez-de-Silanes & Andrei Shleifer & Robert W. Vishny, 1997. " Legal Determinants of External Finance," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 52(3), pages 1131-1150, July.
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    8. Rafael La Porta & Florencio Lopez-De-Silanes & Andrei Shleifer, 1999. "Corporate Ownership Around the World," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 54(2), pages 471-517, April.
    9. Short, Helen, 1994. " Ownership, Control, Financial Structure and the Performance of Firms," Journal of Economic Surveys, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 8(3), pages 203-249, September.
    10. Becht, M.C. & Chapelle, A. & Renneboog, L.D.R., 1999. "Shareholding Cascades : The Separation of Ownership and Control in Belgium," Discussion Paper 1999-96, Tilburg University, Center for Economic Research.
    11. Michael Ian Cragg & I.J. Alexander Dyck, 1999. "Management Control and Privatization in the United Kingdom," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 30(3), pages 475-497, Autumn.
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    15. Ariane Chapelle, 2000. "Corporate control in Belgium," ULB Institutional Repository 2013/9961, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles.
    16. Claessens, Stijn & Djankov, Simeon & Lang, Larry H. P., 2000. "The separation of ownership and control in East Asian Corporations," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 58(1-2), pages 81-112.
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Luis H Gutiérrez & Carlos Pombo, 2005. "Corporate Valuation and Governance: Evidence from Colombia," BORRADORES DE INVESTIGACIÓN 002203, UNIVERSIDAD DEL ROSARIO.
    2. Nicolò Pecora & Alessandro Spelta, 2014. "Shareholding Network in the Euro Area Banking Market," DISCE - Working Papers del Dipartimento di Economia e Finanza def014, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Dipartimenti e Istituti di Scienze Economiche (DISCE).
    3. Luis H. Gutiérrez & Carlos Pombo, 2005. "Valuación y gobierno corporativo: elementos de juicio de Colombia," Research Department Publications 3217, Inter-American Development Bank, Research Department.
    4. Carlos Pombo & Luis H. Gutiérrez, 2007. "Corporate Governance and Firm Valuation in Colombia," Research Department Publications 4470, Inter-American Development Bank, Research Department.
    5. Gutierrez, Luis H. & Pombo, Carlos & Taborda, Rodrigo, 2008. "Ownership and control in Colombian corporations," The Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 48(1), pages 22-47, February.
    6. Piccardi, Carlo & Calatroni, Lisa & Bertoni, Fabio, 2010. "Communities in Italian corporate networks," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 389(22), pages 5247-5258.
    7. Luis H. Gutiérrez & Carlos Pombo & Rodrigo Taborda, 2005. "Propiedad y control en empresas colombianas," Research Department Publications 3221, Inter-American Development Bank, Research Department.
    8. repec:ctc:serie1:def14 is not listed on IDEAS
    9. Carlos Pombo & Luis H. Gutiérrez, 2007. "Gestión empresarial y valuación de empresas en Colombia," Research Department Publications 4471, Inter-American Development Bank, Research Department.
    10. Irfah Najihah Basir Malan & Norhana Salamudin & Noryati Ahmad, 2013. "Determinants of Firm Affiliation to Pyramid Structure: A Survey from Malaysian Public Listed Firms," Journal of Asian Scientific Research, Asian Economic and Social Society, vol. 3(6), pages 549-569, June.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Cross-ownership; Ownership structure; Pyramiding; Separation ratio;

    JEL classification:

    • G34 - Financial Economics - - Corporate Finance and Governance - - - Mergers; Acquisitions; Restructuring; Corporate Governance
    • G32 - Financial Economics - - Corporate Finance and Governance - - - Financing Policy; Financial Risk and Risk Management; Capital and Ownership Structure; Value of Firms; Goodwill

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