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Pigskin, Tailgating and Pollution: Estimating the Environmental Impacts of Sporting Events

  • Rhodes, M. Taylor


    (University of North Carolina at Greensboro, Department of Economics)

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    This paper estimates the environmental impact of sporting events by analyzing a collection of small typically geographically isolated cities which host at least one NCAA football team that competes in the Division I Football Bowl Subdivision (FBS) in 2010. Fixed-effects regressions controlling for differences across cities and across months suggest that cities do experience an increase in pollution levels on and around game days relative to non-game days. These marginal increases were largest in November even after controlling for weather, various trends and other sources of seasonality. When hosting games in November, the corresponding percent increases in daily mortality ranged from .06 to .25% for cardiovascular mortality to .23 to .47% for respiratory mortality.

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    Paper provided by University of North Carolina at Greensboro, Department of Economics in its series Working Papers with number 13-19.

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    Length: 42 pages
    Date of creation: 23 Oct 2013
    Date of revision:
    Handle: RePEc:ris:uncgec:2013_019
    Contact details of provider: Postal: Box 26165, Greensboro, NC 27402-6165
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    1. John Siegfried & Andrew Zimbalist, 2002. "A Note on the Local Economic Impact of Sports Expenditures," Journal of Sports Economics, , vol. 3(4), pages 361-366, November.
    2. Dennis Coates & Craig A. Depken, II, 2011. "Mega-Events: Is Baylor Football to Waco What the Super Bowl is to Houston?," Journal of Sports Economics, , vol. 12(6), pages 599-620, December.
    3. Bernard F. Lentz & David N. Laband, 2008. "The Impact of College Athletics on Employment in the Restaurant and Accommodations Industries," Working Papers 0803, International Association of Sports Economists;North American Association of Sports Economists.
    4. Heutel, Garth & Ruhm, Christopher J., 2013. "Air Pollution and Procyclical Mortality," Working Papers 13-7, University of North Carolina at Greensboro, Department of Economics.
    5. Dennis Coates & Craig A Depken, 2009. "The Impact of College Football Games on Local Sales Tax Revenue: Evidence from Four Cities in Texas," Eastern Economic Journal, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 35(4), pages 531-547.
    6. Heutel, Garth, 2011. "How Should Environmental Policy Respond to Business Cycles? Optimal Policy under Persistent Productivity Shocks," Working Papers 11-8, University of North Carolina at Greensboro, Department of Economics.
    7. Jason M. Lindo & Isaac D. Swensen & Glen R. Waddell, 2011. "Are Big-Time Sports a Threat to Student Achievement?," NBER Working Papers 17677, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    8. Bresnahan, T.F & Reiss, P.C., 1989. "Entry And Competition In Concentrated Markets," Papers 151, Stanford - Studies in Industry Economics.
    9. Halvorsen, Robert & Palmquist, Raymond, 1980. "The Interpretation of Dummy Variables in Semilogarithmic Equations," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 70(3), pages 474-75, June.
    10. Daniel I. Rees & Kevin T. Schnepel, 2009. "College Football Games and Crime," Journal of Sports Economics, , vol. 10(1), pages 68-87, February.
    11. John Siegfried & Andrew Zimbalist, 2006. "The Economic Impact of Sports Facilities, Teams and Mega-Events," Australian Economic Review, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne Institute of Applied Economic and Social Research, vol. 39(4), pages 420-427, December.
    12. Coates, Dennis & Humphreys, Brad R., 2003. "The effect of professional sports on earnings and employment in the services and retail sectors in US cities," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 33(2), pages 175-198, March.
    13. Coates, Dennis & Humphreys, Brad R. & Zimbalist, Andrew, 2006. "Compensating differentials and the social benefits of the NFL: A comment," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 60(1), pages 124-131, July.
    14. Daraius Irani, 1997. "Public Subsidies to Stadiums: Do the Costs Outweigh the Benefits?," Public Finance Review, , vol. 25(2), pages 238-253, March.
    15. John J. Siegfried & Andrew Zimbalist, 2000. "The Economics of Sports Facilities and Their Communities," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 14(3), pages 95-114, Summer.
    16. Garth Heutel, 2011. "Online Appendix to "How Should Environmental Policy Respond to Business Cycles? Optimal Policy under Persistent Productivity Shocks"," Technical Appendices 10-62, Review of Economic Dynamics.
    17. Dennis Coates & Brad R. Humphreys, 1999. "The growth effects of sport franchises, stadia, and arenas," Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 18(4), pages 601-624.
    18. Michael L. Anderson, 2012. "The Benefits of College Athletic Success: An Application of the Propensity Score Design with Instrumental Variables," NBER Working Papers 18196, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
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