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Capital Controls and Firm Performance: The Effects of the Chilean Encaje

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  • Eugenia Andreasen

    (Universidad de Santiago de Chile)

  • Evangelina Dardati

    (Universidad Alberto Hurtado)

  • Sofia Bauducco

    (Central Bank of Chile)

Abstract

This paper studies the effects of the capital controls imposed by Chile between 1991 and 1998, i.e. the Chilean encaje, on firms’ production, investment and exporting decisions. We use a general equilibrium model with heterogeneous firms and financial constraints to illustrate the mechanism by which capital controls on inflows affect firm-level dynamics and international trade. We find that capital controls on inflows depress the local economy due to the credit restriction, reducing aggregate production, investment and domestic sales. This reduced level of domestic activity increases the firm’s incentives to export, increasing both the level of exports and the share of exporters. Most of these effects are exacerbated for firms in more capital-intensive sectors. Using data from the Chilean Encuesta Nacional Industrial Anual (ENIA) we empirically corroborate the conclusions and insights of the theoretical model.

Suggested Citation

  • Eugenia Andreasen & Evangelina Dardati & Sofia Bauducco, 2018. "Capital Controls and Firm Performance: The Effects of the Chilean Encaje," 2018 Meeting Papers 774, Society for Economic Dynamics.
  • Handle: RePEc:red:sed018:774
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Marc J. Melitz, 2003. "The Impact of Trade on Intra-Industry Reallocations and Aggregate Industry Productivity," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 71(6), pages 1695-1725, November.
    2. Matthias Arnold, Jens & Javorcik, Beata S., 2009. "Gifted kids or pushy parents? Foreign direct investment and plant productivity in Indonesia," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 79(1), pages 42-53, September.
    3. Fernando Leibovici, 2013. "Financial Development and International Trade," 2013 Meeting Papers 532, Society for Economic Dynamics.
    4. Forbes, Kristin J., 2007. "One cost of the Chilean capital controls: Increased financial constraints for smaller traded firms," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 71(2), pages 294-323, April.
    5. Mauricio Larrain & Sebastian Stumpner, 2017. "Capital Account Liberalization and Aggregate Productivity: The Role of Firm Capital Allocation," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 72(4), pages 1825-1858, August.
    6. David Kohn & Fernando Leibovici & Michal Szkup, 2016. "Financial Frictions And New Exporter Dynamics," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 57, pages 453-486, May.
    7. Cardenas, Mauricio & Barrera, Felipe, 1997. "On the effectiveness of capital controls: The experience of Colombia during the 1990s," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 54(1), pages 27-57, October.
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