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Factor-GMM Estimation with Large Sets of Possibly Weak Instruments


  • George Kapetanios

    (Queen Mary, University of London)

  • Massimiliano Marcellino

    (IEP-Bocconi University, IGIER and CEPR)


This paper analyses the use of factor analysis for instrumental variable estimation when the number of instruments tends to infinity. We consider cases where the unobserved factors are the optimal instruments but also cases where the factors are not necessarily the optimal instruments but can provide a summary of a large set of instruments. Further, the situation where many weak instruments exist is also considered in the context of factor models. Theoretical results, simulation experiments and empirical applications highlight the relevance and simplicity of Factor-GMM estimation.

Suggested Citation

  • George Kapetanios & Massimiliano Marcellino, 2006. "Factor-GMM Estimation with Large Sets of Possibly Weak Instruments," Working Papers 577, Queen Mary University of London, School of Economics and Finance.
  • Handle: RePEc:qmw:qmwecw:577

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    More about this item


    Factor models; Principal components; Instrumental variables; GMM; Weak instruments; DSGE models;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • C32 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Multiple or Simultaneous Equation Models; Multiple Variables - - - Time-Series Models; Dynamic Quantile Regressions; Dynamic Treatment Effect Models; Diffusion Processes; State Space Models
    • C51 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Econometric Modeling - - - Model Construction and Estimation
    • E52 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Monetary Policy, Central Banking, and the Supply of Money and Credit - - - Monetary Policy


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