IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/pra/mprapa/92068.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Impacts of Direct and Indirect Tax Reforms in Vietnam: A CGE Analysis

Author

Listed:
  • Bhattarai, Keshab
  • Nguyen, Dung T.K.
  • Nguyen, Chan V

Abstract

The study applies a multi-sector multi-household static general equilibrium tax model to assess economy-wide impacts of taxes in Vietnam. It examines two tax reform scenarios based on the tax reform plan proposed by the Vietnam Ministry of Finance. The first scenario is increasing 20% from the current Value-Added Tax (VAT) rate. The second scenario relates to setting a competitive Corporate Income Tax (CIT) rate to the lowest rate in ASEAN countries. In general correction of current tax distortions will have positive impacts on labour supply, utility, consumption, output and welfare of households as they reallocate resources from more to less productive sectors of the economy. The CGE model allows to find the impacts on microeconomic and macroeconomic variables including employments, output, prices and capital stock as well as on welfare of households of an increase in the standard VAT rate from 10 to 12% and reduction in the CIT rate from 20 to 17% as considered by the current government. This study contributes to the literature on the CGE model for Vietnam economy, it is also a small step towards finding the optimal tax structure in Vietnam.

Suggested Citation

  • Bhattarai, Keshab & Nguyen, Dung T.K. & Nguyen, Chan V, 2018. "Impacts of Direct and Indirect Tax Reforms in Vietnam: A CGE Analysis," MPRA Paper 92068, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 08 Feb 2019.
  • Handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:92068
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: https://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/92068/1/MPRA_paper_92068.pdf
    File Function: original version
    Download Restriction: no
    ---><---

    Other versions of this item:

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Charles L. Ballard & Don Fullerton & John B. Shoven & John Whalley, 1985. "General Equilibrium Analysis of Tax Policies," NBER Chapters, in: A General Equilibrium Model for Tax Policy Evaluation, pages 6-24, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    2. Mattias K. Polborn & Mike Hoy & Asha Sadanand, 1999. "Information and Dynamic Adjustment in Life Insurance," UWO Department of Economics Working Papers 9906, University of Western Ontario, Department of Economics.
    3. Keshab Bhattarai, 2015. "Financial Deepening and Economic Growth in Advanced and Emerging Economies," Review of Development Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 19(1), pages 178-195, February.
    4. Goulder, Lawrence H. & Summers, Lawrence H., 1989. "Tax policy, asset prices, and growth : A general equilibrium analysis," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 38(3), pages 265-296, April.
    5. Herbert E. Scarf, 1969. "An Example of an Algorithm for Calculating General Equilibrium," Cowles Foundation Discussion Papers 276, Cowles Foundation for Research in Economics, Yale University.
    6. Arnold C. Harberger, 1962. "The Incidence of the Corporation Income Tax," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 70, pages 215-215.
    7. James A. Giesecke & Tran Hoang Nhi, 2009. "Sources of Growth and Structural Change in the Vietnamese Economy, 1996–2003: A Computable General Equilibrium Analysis," Asian Economic Journal, East Asian Economic Association, vol. 23(2), pages 195-224, June.
    8. Rutherford, Thomas F, 1999. "Applied General Equilibrium Modeling with MPSGE as a GAMS Subsystem: An Overview of the Modeling Framework and Syntax," Computational Economics, Springer;Society for Computational Economics, vol. 14(1-2), pages 1-46, October.
    9. Scarf, Herbert, 1969. "An Example of an Algorithm for Calculating General Equilibrium Prices," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 59(4), pages 669-677, Part I Se.
    10. Joshua Elliott & Ian Foster & Samuel Kortum & Todd Munson & Fernando Pérez Cervantes & David Weisbach, 2010. "Trade and Carbon Taxes," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 100(2), pages 465-469, May.
    11. Keshab Bhattarai & Jonathan Haughton & Michael Head & David G Tuerck, 2017. "Simulating Corporate Income Tax Reform Proposals with a Dynamic CGE Model," International Journal of Economics and Finance, Canadian Center of Science and Education, vol. 9(5), pages 20-35, May.
    12. Finn Tarp & David Roland-Holst & John Rand, 2002. "Trade and Income Growth in Vietnam: Estimates from a New Social Accounting Matrix," Economic Systems Research, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 14(2), pages 157-184, June.
    13. Shoven,John B. & Whalley,John, 1992. "Applying General Equilibrium," Cambridge Books, Cambridge University Press, number 9780521266550, February.
    14. Dirk Willenbockel, 2011. "Environmental Tax Reform in Vietnam: An Ex Ante General Equilibrium Assessment," EcoMod2011 3082, EcoMod.
    15. Coxhead, Ian & Wattanakuljarus, Anan & Nguyen, Chan V., 2013. "Are Carbon Taxes Good for the Poor? A General Equilibrium Analysis for Vietnam," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 51(C), pages 119-131.
    16. Dixon, Peter B. & Rimmer, Maureen T., 2016. "Johansen's legacy to CGE modelling: Originator and guiding light for 50 years," Journal of Policy Modeling, Elsevier, vol. 38(3), pages 421-435.
    17. Henning Tarp Jensen & Finn Tarp, 2005. "Trade Liberalization and Spatial Inequality: a Methodological Innovation in a Vietnamese Perspective," Review of Development Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 9(1), pages 69-86, February.
    18. Shoven, John B & Whalley, John, 1984. "Applied General-Equilibrium Models of Taxation and International Trade: An Introduction and Survey," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 22(3), pages 1007-1051, September.
    19. Baxter, Marianne & King, Robert G, 1993. "Fiscal Policy in General Equilibrium," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 83(3), pages 315-334, June.
    20. Giesecke, James A. & Nhi, Tran Hoang, 2010. "Modelling value-added tax in the presence of multi-production and differentiated exemptions," Journal of Asian Economics, Elsevier, vol. 21(2), pages 156-173, April.
    21. Rutherford, Thomas F., 1995. "Extension of GAMS for complementarity problems arising in applied economic analysis," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 19(8), pages 1299-1324, November.
    22. Minor, Peter & Walmsley, Terrie & Strutt, Anna, 2018. "State-owned enterprise reform in Vietnam: A dynamic CGE analysis," Journal of Asian Economics, Elsevier, vol. 55(C), pages 42-57.
    23. Chan, Nguyen & Dung, Tran Kim & Ghosh, Madanmohan & Whalley, John, 2005. "Adjustment costs in labour markets and the distributional effects of trade liberalization: Analytics and calculations for Vietnam," Journal of Policy Modeling, Elsevier, vol. 27(9), pages 1009-1024, December.
    24. Roland-Holst, David & Tarp, Finn & Dinh, Van An & Thanh, Vo Tri & Huong, Pham Lan & Dinh, Hien Minh, 2002. "Vietnam’s Accession to the World Trade Organization: Economic Projections to 2020," MPRA Paper 29417, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    25. Keshab Bhattarai, 2016. "Growth and Income Distributions in Four EU Economies," International Advances in Economic Research, Springer;International Atlantic Economic Society, vol. 22(3), pages 263-277, August.
    26. Nguyen Chan & Madanmohan Ghosh & John Whalley, 1999. "Evaluating Tax Reform in Vietnam Using General Equilibrium Methods," UWO Department of Economics Working Papers 9904, University of Western Ontario, Department of Economics.
    27. Bhattarai, Keshab & Bachman, Paul & Conte, Frank & Haughton, Jonathan & Head, Michael & Tuerck, David G., 2018. "Tax plan debates in the US presidential election: A dynamic CGE analysis of growth and redistribution trade-offs," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 68(C), pages 529-542.
    28. Mikhail Golosov & John Hassler & Per Krusell & Aleh Tsyvinski, 2014. "Optimal Taxes on Fossil Fuel in General Equilibrium," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 82(1), pages 41-88, January.
    29. Keshab Bhattarai, 2011. "General Equilibrium Impacts of Monetary and Fiscal Policies on Welfare of Households in South Asia," Review of Development Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 15(4), pages 745-757, November.
    30. David Vanzetti & Pham Lan Huong, 2006. "Vietnam's Trade Policy Dilemmas," Trade Working Papers 22036, East Asian Bureau of Economic Research.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Abbott, Philip & Bentzen, Jeanet & Huong, Thi Lan & Tarp, Finn, 2007. "A Critical Review of Studies on the Social and Economic Impacts of Vietnam’s International Economic Integration," MPRA Paper 29789, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    2. Böhringer, Christoph & Rutherford, Thomas Fox & Wiegard, Wolfgang, 2003. "Computable general equilibrium analysis: Opening a black box," ZEW Discussion Papers 03-56, ZEW - Leibniz Centre for European Economic Research.
    3. Bhattarai, Keshab & Bachman, Paul & Conte, Frank & Haughton, Jonathan & Head, Michael & Tuerck, David G., 2018. "Tax plan debates in the US presidential election: A dynamic CGE analysis of growth and redistribution trade-offs," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 68(C), pages 529-542.
    4. Amy Peng, 2009. "Introducing CGE Models to the Classroom Using EXCEL," Working Papers 013, Ryerson University, Department of Economics.
    5. Bjarne S. Jensen, 2004. "Pareto Efficiency, Relative Prices, and Solutions to CGE Models," DEGIT Conference Papers c009_006, DEGIT, Dynamics, Economic Growth, and International Trade.
    6. Fullerton, Don & Ta, Chi L., 2019. "Environmental policy on the back of an envelope: A Cobb-Douglas model is not just a teaching tool," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 84(S1).
    7. Abbott, Philip & Bentzen, Jeanet & Tarp, Finn, 2006. "Vietnam’s Accession to the WTO: Lessons from Past Trade Agreements," MPRA Paper 61679, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    8. Peichl, Andreas & Fuest, Clemens & Schaefer, Thilo, 2005. "Dokumentation FiFoSiM: Integriertes Steuer-Transfer-Mikrosimulations- und CGE-Modell," FiFo Discussion Papers - Finanzwissenschaftliche Diskussionsbeiträge 05-3, University of Cologne, FiFo Institute for Public Economics.
    9. Fuest, Clemens & Heilmann, Sven & Peichl, Andreas & Schaefer, Thilo & Bergs, Christian, 2006. "Aufkommens-, Beschäftigungs- und Wachstumswirkungen einer Reform des Steuer- und Transfersystems nach dem Bürgergeld-Vorschlag von Joachim Mitschke [Revenue, employment and growth effects of the in," FiFo Reports - FiFo-Berichte 8, University of Cologne, FiFo Institute for Public Economics.
    10. Babatunde, Kazeem Alasinrin & Begum, Rawshan Ara & Said, Fathin Faizah, 2017. "Application of computable general equilibrium (CGE) to climate change mitigation policy: A systematic review," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 78(C), pages 61-71.
    11. Keshab Bhattarai, 2017. "Welfare and Distributional Impacts of Financial Liberalization in an Open Economy: Lessons from a Multi-Sectoral Dynamic CGE Model for Nepal," International Business Research, Canadian Center of Science and Education, vol. 10(1), pages 181-198, January.
    12. Chan, Gabriel & Reilly, John M. & Paltsev, Sergey & Chen, Y.-H. Henry, 2012. "The Canadian oil sands industry under carbon constraints," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 50(C), pages 540-550.
    13. Fehr, Hans, 1999. "Welfare Effects of Dynamic Tax Reforms," Beiträge zur Finanzwissenschaft, Mohr Siebeck, Tübingen, edition 1, volume 5, number urn:isbn:9783161470165, September.
    14. Okushima, Shinichiro & Tamura, Makoto, 2010. "What causes the change in energy demand in the economy?: The role of technological change," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 32(Supplemen), pages 41-46, September.
    15. Holmøy, Erling, 2016. "The development and use of CGE models in Norway," Journal of Policy Modeling, Elsevier, vol. 38(3), pages 448-474.
    16. Cardenete, Manuel Alejandro & Delgado, M. Carmen, 2015. "A simulation of impact of withdrawal European funds on Andalusian economy using a dynamic CGE model: 2014–20," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 45(C), pages 83-92.
    17. Karplus, Valerie J. & Paltsev, Sergey & Babiker, Mustafa & Reilly, John M., 2013. "Applying engineering and fleet detail to represent passenger vehicle transport in a computable general equilibrium model," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 30(C), pages 295-305.
    18. Okushima, Shinichiro & Tamura, Makoto, 2007. "Multiple calibration decomposition analysis: Energy use and carbon dioxide emissions in the Japanese economy, 1970-1995," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 35(10), pages 5156-5170, October.
    19. Barajas, Ángel & Salgado, Jesyca & Sánchez, Patricio, 2012. "Problemática de los estudios de impacto económico de eventos deportivos /Problems to face in the Economic Impact of Sports Events Studies," Estudios de Economia Aplicada, Estudios de Economia Aplicada, vol. 30, pages 441-462, Agosto.
    20. Fuest, Clemens & Peichl, Andreas & Schaefer, Thilo, 2005. "Aufkommens-, Beschäftigungs- und Wachstumswirkungen einer Steuerreform nach dem Vorschlag von Mitschke [Revenue, employment and growth effects of the tax reform proposal by Mitschke]," FiFo Reports - FiFo-Berichte 5, University of Cologne, FiFo Institute for Public Economics.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Tax reform; general equilibrium; tax analysis; Vietnam;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • C68 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Mathematical Methods; Programming Models; Mathematical and Simulation Modeling - - - Computable General Equilibrium Models
    • D58 - Microeconomics - - General Equilibrium and Disequilibrium - - - Computable and Other Applied General Equilibrium Models
    • E62 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Macroeconomic Policy, Macroeconomic Aspects of Public Finance, and General Outlook - - - Fiscal Policy
    • H3 - Public Economics - - Fiscal Policies and Behavior of Economic Agents

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:92068. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: . General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/vfmunde.html .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: Joachim Winter (email available below). General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/vfmunde.html .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.