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Modelling Value-Added Tax in the Presence of Multiproduction and Differentiated Exemptions

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  • James Giesecke
  • Nhi Hoang Tran

Abstract

We develop a framework for economy-wide modelling of value-added tax systems. Our framework models a number of complexities of VAT systems as they are implemented by tax agencies. In particular, we model multiple rates, multiple exemptions, multiple degrees of refundability across commodity users, and multi-product enterprises. A detailed VAT framework, such as that which we present in this paper, is important for correct modelling of VAT within a general equilibrium model. Such a framework is also of value in correctly calculating the distribution of indirect tax payments in CGE model databases, a prerequisite of accurate welfare impact calculations. We use the model to analyse the effects of simplifying Vietnam's complex VAT system. We simplify the system by moving from three tax rates to one budget-neutral rate, while also removing many discretionary exemptions. We find that the policy lifts real private consumption spending, our welfare measure, by an average of 0.9 per cent over our simulation period, 2008-2018.

Suggested Citation

  • James Giesecke & Nhi Hoang Tran, 2009. "Modelling Value-Added Tax in the Presence of Multiproduction and Differentiated Exemptions," Centre of Policy Studies/IMPACT Centre Working Papers g-182, Victoria University, Centre of Policy Studies/IMPACT Centre.
  • Handle: RePEc:cop:wpaper:g-182
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Bird,Richard & Gendron,Pierre-Pascal, 2011. "The VAT in Developing and Transitional Countries," Cambridge Books, Cambridge University Press, number 9781107401440, March.
    2. International Monetary Fund, 2007. "Vietnam; Statistical Appendix," IMF Staff Country Reports 07/386, International Monetary Fund.
    3. Don Fullerton & Yolanda K. Henderson & John B. Shoven, 1982. "A Comparison of Methodologies in Empirical General Equilibrium Models of Taxation," NBER Working Papers 0911, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    4. Peter B. Dixon & Maureen T. Rimmer, 1999. "Changes in Indirect Taxes in Australia: A Dynamic General Equilibrium Analysis," Australian Economic Review, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne Institute of Applied Economic and Social Research, vol. 32(4), pages 327-348.
    5. Stephen Marks, 2005. "Proposed changes to the value added tax: implications for tax revenue and price distortions," Bulletin of Indonesian Economic Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 41(1), pages 81-95.
    6. Charles L. Ballard & John Karl Scholz & John B. Shoven, 1987. "The Value-Added Tax: A General Equilibrium Look at Its Efficiency and Incidence," NBER Chapters,in: The Effects of Taxation on Capital Accumulation, pages 445-480 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    7. Gottfried, Peter & Wiegard, Wolfgang, 1991. "Exemption versus zero rating : A hidden problem of VAT," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 46(3), pages 307-328, December.
    8. Binh Tran-Nam, 2001. "Use and Misuse of Tax Compliance Costs in Evaluating the GST," Australian Economic Review, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne Institute of Applied Economic and Social Research, vol. 34(3), pages 279-290.
    9. Dixon, Peter B. & Parmenter, B. R. & Powell, Alan A., 1984. "The role of miniatures in computable general equilibrium modelling : Experience from ORANI," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 1(4), pages 421-428, October.
    10. Kehoe, Timothy J. & Noyola, Pedro Javier & Manresa, Antonio & Polo, Clemente & Sancho, Ferran, 1988. "A general equilibrium analysis of the 1986 tax reform in Spain," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 32(2-3), pages 334-342, March.
    11. Toh, Mun-Heng & Lin, Qian, 2005. "An evaluation of the 1994 tax reform in China using a general equilibrium model," China Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 16(3), pages 246-270.
    12. Sijbren Cnossen, 1998. "Global Trends and Issues in Value Added Taxation," International Tax and Public Finance, Springer;International Institute of Public Finance, vol. 5(3), pages 399-428, July.
    13. Jonathan Haughton & Shahidur R. Khandker, 2009. "Handbook on Poverty and Inequality," World Bank Publications, The World Bank, number 11985.
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    Cited by:

    1. Dietl Helmut M & Jaag Christian & Lang Markus & Trinkner Urs W.O., 2011. "Competition and Welfare Effects of VAT Exemptions," The B.E. Journal of Economic Analysis & Policy, De Gruyter, vol. 11(1), pages 1-29, April.
    2. de Quatrebarbes, Céline & Boccanfuso, Dorothée & Savard, Luc, 2016. "Beyond representative households: The macro–micro impact analysis of VAT designs applied to Niger," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 57(C), pages 76-92.
    3. Felici Francesco & Maria Gesualdo, 2014. "Fiscal extension to ORANI-IT: a computable general equilibrium model for Italy," Working Papers 8, Department of the Treasury, Ministry of the Economy and of Finance.
    4. Dasalegn Mosissa Jalata, 2014. "Taxation for Economic Growth: Evidence from Ethiopia," International Journal of Economics and Empirical Research (IJEER), The Economics and Social Development Organization (TESDO), vol. 2(7), pages 294-300, July.
    5. Dorothée Boccanfuso & Céline de Quatrebarbes & Luc Savard, 2011. "Can the removal of VAT Exemptions support the Poor? The Case of Niger," Cahiers de recherche 11-04, Departement d'Economique de l'École de gestion à l'Université de Sherbrooke, revised 05 Dec 2015.
    6. Céline de Quatrebarbes & Savard Luc & Boccanfuso Dorothée, 2011. "Can the suppression of VAT exemption support the poor? The case of Niger," EcoMod2011 3227, EcoMod.
    7. Anum Saeed & Adeel Ahmad & Khalid Zaman, 2012. "Validity of the Value Added Tax in the SAARC Region," Romanian Economic Journal, Department of International Business and Economics from the Academy of Economic Studies Bucharest, vol. 15(45), pages 143-170, September.
    8. Marc Jim M. Mariano & James A. Giesecke & Nhi H. Tran, 2015. "The effects of domestic rice market interventions outside business-as-usual conditions for imported rice prices," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 47(8), pages 809-832, February.
    9. Konstantins Benkovskis & Eduards Goluzins & Olegs Tkacevs, 2016. "CGE model with fiscal sector for Latvia," Working Papers 2016/01, Latvijas Banka.
    10. J.A. Giesecke & N.H. Tran, 2017. "The National and Regional Consequences of Australia's Goods and Services Tax," Centre of Policy Studies/IMPACT Centre Working Papers g-278, Victoria University, Centre of Policy Studies/IMPACT Centre.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    value added tax; dynamic CGE model; Vietnam; indirect tax reform;

    JEL classification:

    • C68 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Mathematical Methods; Programming Models; Mathematical and Simulation Modeling - - - Computable General Equilibrium Models
    • H25 - Public Economics - - Taxation, Subsidies, and Revenue - - - Business Taxes and Subsidies
    • H21 - Public Economics - - Taxation, Subsidies, and Revenue - - - Efficiency; Optimal Taxation

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