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Can the removal of VAT Exemptions support the Poor? The Case of Niger

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  • Céline DE QUATREBARBES
  • Luc SAVARD
  • Dorothée BOCCANFUSO

Abstract

In order to have the public funds necessary for its development, Niger is examining the possibility of expanding its VAT tax base to exempted goods and basic food products. This proposal has prompted violent opposition leading to the question of the social impacts of taxation. The first micro-macro computable general equilibrium model of Niger's actual economy has been developed. This model allows analysis of the social impact and distributional analysis of the following VAT structures: a pure VAT structure, a structure maintaining certain exemptions, and a multiple-rate VAT structure. The model’s results shows that although restoring the VAT rate would be socially costly compared to the initial situation, the distributional impact of the VAT differs according to the system implemented in the country. Maintaining VAT exemptions in food crop agriculture sectors associated with a tax base expansion in the remaining sectors will increase public revenue while taking into account the national goal of poverty reduction. The net social impact of exoneration depends on the economic structure of the concerned sector. If the national goal is the end of exemption, the model shows that applying a pure VAT conforming to the theory is preferable in terms of economic growth whereas applying a reduced-rate on food crop agriculture lightens the social impact of the end of exemptions compared to a single rate.

Suggested Citation

  • Céline DE QUATREBARBES & Luc SAVARD & Dorothée BOCCANFUSO, 2011. "Can the removal of VAT Exemptions support the Poor? The Case of Niger," Working Papers 201106, CERDI.
  • Handle: RePEc:cdi:wpaper:1245
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    Cited by:

    1. Jonathan Goyette, 2012. "Optimal tax threshold: the consequences on efficiency of official vs. effective enforcement," Cahiers de recherche 12-07, Departement d'Economique de l'École de gestion à l'Université de Sherbrooke.
    2. Ronald Davies & Lourenço Paz, 2011. "Tariffs versus VAT in the presence of heterogeneous firms and an informal sector," International Tax and Public Finance, Springer;International Institute of Public Finance, vol. 18(5), pages 533-554, October.
    3. Beesley Revol, 2018. "Fiscal Policy is Simply Instrument that Bring Money for Developing in Country," International Journal of Business and Economic Affairs (IJBEA), Sana N. Maswadeh, vol. 3(3), pages 101-113.
    4. Dhani Setyawan, 2012. "The Impact of Indirect Taxation on the Plantation Sector in Indonesia," Journal of Social and Development Sciences, AMH International, vol. 3(4), pages 135-141.

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    More about this item

    Keywords

    Computable general equilibrium model; Micro-simulation; Value Added Tax; Exemptions; Distributional analysis; Niger;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • I32 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Welfare, Well-Being, and Poverty - - - Measurement and Analysis of Poverty
    • H22 - Public Economics - - Taxation, Subsidies, and Revenue - - - Incidence
    • E62 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Macroeconomic Policy, Macroeconomic Aspects of Public Finance, and General Outlook - - - Fiscal Policy
    • D58 - Microeconomics - - General Equilibrium and Disequilibrium - - - Computable and Other Applied General Equilibrium Models

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