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Indirect tax reform and the role of exemptions

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  • John Creedy

Abstract

This paper examines the question of whether indirect tax rates should be uniform, using four different modelling strategies. First, marginal tax reform is examined. This is concerned with the optimal direction of small changes in effective indirect tax rates and requires considerably less information than the calculation of optimal rates. Second, the welfare effects of a partial shift from the current indirect tax system in Australia towards a goods and services tax (GST) are considered, with particular emphasis on differences between household types and the role of exemptions. Third, in view of the stress on a distributional role for exemptions of certain goods from a GST, the potential limits to such redistribution are considered. The fourth approach examines the extent of horizontal inequity and reranking that can arise when there are non-uniform tax rates. These inequities arise essentially because of preference heterogeneity.

Suggested Citation

  • John Creedy, 2001. "Indirect tax reform and the role of exemptions," Fiscal Studies, Institute for Fiscal Studies, vol. 22(4), pages 457-486., December.
  • Handle: RePEc:ifs:fistud:v:22:y:2001:i:4:p:457-486.
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Ahmad, Ehtisham & Stern, Nicholas, 1984. "The theory of reform and indian indirect taxes," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 25(3), pages 259-298, December.
    2. Creedy, J., 1998. "Differential Consumption Taxes and Equity: The Limits to Redistribution," Department of Economics - Working Papers Series 648, The University of Melbourne.
    3. Banks, James & Blundell, Richard & Lewbel, Arthur, 1996. "Tax Reform and Welfare Measurement: Do We Need Demand System Estimation?," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 106(438), pages 1227-1241, September.
    4. Blackorby, Charles & Donaldson, David, 1988. "Money metric utility: A harmless normalization?," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 46(1), pages 120-129, October.
    5. Kakwani, Nanok C, 1977. "Measurement of Tax Progressivity: An International Comparison," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 87(345), pages 71-80, March.
    6. Creedy, John, 1998. "Measuring the Welfare Effects of Price Changes: A Convenient Parametric Approach," Australian Economic Papers, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 37(2), pages 137-151, June.
    7. King, Mervyn A., 1983. "Welfare analysis of tax reforms using household data," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 21(2), pages 183-214, July.
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. John Creedy, 2009. "Personal Income Taxation: From Theory to Policy," Australian Economic Review, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne Institute of Applied Economic and Social Research, vol. 42(4), pages 496-506.
    2. de Quatrebarbes, Céline & Boccanfuso, Dorothée & Savard, Luc, 2016. "Beyond representative households: The macro–micro impact analysis of VAT designs applied to Niger," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 57(C), pages 76-92.
    3. John Creedy, 2009. "The Personal Income Tax Structure: Theory and Policy," Department of Economics - Working Papers Series 1063, The University of Melbourne.
    4. Alessandro Santoro, 2007. "Marginal Commodity Tax Reforms: A Survey," Journal of Economic Surveys, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 21(4), pages 827-848, September.
    5. Dorothée Boccanfuso & Céline de Quatrebarbes & Luc Savard, 2011. "Can the removal of VAT Exemptions support the Poor? The Case of Niger," Cahiers de recherche 11-04, Departement d'Economique de l'École de gestion à l'Université de Sherbrooke, revised 05 Dec 2015.
    6. BuShehri, Mahmoud A.M. & Wohlgenant, Michael K., 2012. "Measuring the welfare effects of reducing a subsidy on a commodity using micro-models: An application to Kuwait's residential demand for electricity," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 34(2), pages 419-425.
    7. John Creedy, 2010. "Personal Income Tax Structure: Theory and Policy," Chapters,in: Tax Reform in Open Economies, chapter 7 Edward Elgar Publishing.
    8. Georgia Kaplanoglou, 2004. "Household Consumption Patterns, Indirect Tax Structures and Implications for Indirect Tax Harmonisation - A Three Country Perspective," The Economic and Social Review, Economic and Social Studies, vol. 35(1), pages 83-107.
    9. Christopher Ball & John Creedy & Michael Ryan, 2016. "Food expenditure and GST in New Zealand," New Zealand Economic Papers, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 50(2), pages 115-128, August.
    10. Jussila, Mira & Tamminen, Saara & Kinnunen, Jouko, 2012. "The estimation of LES demand elasticities for CGE models," Working Papers 39, VATT Institute for Economic Research.
    11. José Sánchez Maldonado & Salvador Gómez Sala, 2006. "The Reform of Indirect Taxation in Spain: VAT and Excise," International Center for Public Policy Working Paper Series, at AYSPS, GSU paper0607, International Center for Public Policy, Andrew Young School of Policy Studies, Georgia State University.
    12. Jason Loughrey & Cathal O’Donoghue, 2012. "The Welfare Impact of Price Changes on Household Welfare and Inequality 1999-2011," The Economic and Social Review, Economic and Social Studies, vol. 43(1), pages 31-66.
    13. Essama-Nssah, B., 2008. "Assessing the redistributive effect of fiscal policy," Policy Research Working Paper Series 4592, The World Bank.

    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • H24 - Public Economics - - Taxation, Subsidies, and Revenue - - - Personal Income and Other Nonbusiness Taxes and Subsidies
    • H31 - Public Economics - - Fiscal Policies and Behavior of Economic Agents - - - Household

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