The Efficiency of Australian Schools: Evidence from the NAPLAN Data 2009-2011
This study examines the technical efficiency of schools in Australia and its determinants using NAPLAN test results of about 6,800 schools in 2009-2011 and other information from the “My School” website. For each school, we use the average growth of test scores for the same students between 2009 and 2011 as the measure of the school's output and four input measures: the student-teacher ratios, student-non-teaching staff ratios, recurrent income per student and (averaged) capital expenditure per student. We are also able to compare schools by type: including whether or not the school is a public school or a private school, a single sex or co-educational schools, a primary or secondary school, or a school that provides both primary and secondary schooling. In addition we control for several other environmental indicators for each school including: an index of social and educational advantage, the proportion of school children who identify as an Aborigine or Torres Strait Islander, the proportion of students from a non English-speaking background, the proportion of students female, as well as the region, state and territory in which the school is located. We estimate that the average technical efficiency score of Australian schools is 59 per cent and find evidence of input congestion for all of the inputs studied. On average, the growth target for schools in the sample to reach the efficiency frontier is 100 NAPLAN points. Our results suggest that eliminating inputs congestion could, in theory, reduce expenditure per school student by A$2,000. At the primary level, Catholic and independent schools are less efficient than public schools, but this story is reversed at the secondary level. We also find that schools with students from more advantageous social and economic backgrounds and schools with higher ratios of students from non-English speaking backgrounds tend to be more efficient. The results are robust to the choices about how to construct the frontier (e.g., in aggregate or for disaggregates by school type) and to our treatments of output and super-efficiency.
|Date of creation:||27 May 2014|
|Date of revision:|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: Ludwigstraße 33, D-80539 Munich, Germany|
Web page: https://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de
More information through EDIRC
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Haelermans, Carla & Ruggiero, John, 2013. "Estimating technical and allocative efficiency in the public sector: A nonparametric analysis of Dutch schools," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 227(1), pages 174-181.
- W Robert J Alexander & Alfred A. Haug & Mohammad Jaforullah, 2007.
"A two-stage double-bootstrap data envelopment analysis of efficiency differences of New Zealand secondary schools,"
0714, University of Otago, Department of Economics, revised Nov 2007.
- W. Alexander & Alfred Haug & Mohammad Jaforullah, 2010. "A two-stage double-bootstrap data envelopment analysis of efficiency differences of New Zealand secondary schools," Journal of Productivity Analysis, Springer, vol. 34(2), pages 99-110, October.
- Reback, Randall, 2008.
"Teaching to the rating: School accountability and the distribution of student achievement,"
Journal of Public Economics,
Elsevier, vol. 92(5-6), pages 1394-1415, June.
- Randall Reback, 2006. "Teaching to the Rating: School Accountability and the Distribution of Student Achievement," Working Papers 0602, Barnard College, Department of Economics.
- Buddin, Richard & Zamarro, Gema, 2009. "Teacher qualifications and student achievement in urban elementary schools," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 66(2), pages 103-115, September.
- Zoghbi, Ana Carolina & Rocha, Fabiana & Mattos, Enlinson, 2013. "Education production efficiency: Evidence from Brazilian universities," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 31(C), pages 94-103.
- SIMAR, Léopold & WILSON, Paul, 1995.
"Sensitivity Analysis to Efficiency Scores : How to Bootstrap in Nonparametric Frontier Models,"
CORE Discussion Papers
1995043, Université catholique de Louvain, Center for Operations Research and Econometrics (CORE).
- Léopold Simar & Paul W. Wilson, 1998. "Sensitivity Analysis of Efficiency Scores: How to Bootstrap in Nonparametric Frontier Models," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 44(1), pages 49-61, January.
- Simar, L. & Wilson, P.W., . "Sensitivity analysis of efficiency scores: how to bootstrap in nonparametric frontier models," CORE Discussion Papers RP 1304, Université catholique de Louvain, Center for Operations Research and Econometrics (CORE).
- repec:kap:iaecre:v:14:y:2008:i:2:p:228-241 is not listed on IDEAS
- Alfred A. Haug & Vincent C. Blackburn, 2013. "Efficiency Aspects of Government Secondary School Finances in New South Wales: Results from a Two-Stage Double-Bootstrap DEA at the School Level," Working Papers 1316, University of Otago, Department of Economics, revised Nov 2013.
- Ryan, Chris, 2013. "What is behind the decline in student achievement in Australia?," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 37(C), pages 226-239.
- Hanushek, Eric A. & Kain, John F. & Rivkin, Steven G. & Branch, Gregory F., 2007.
"Charter school quality and parental decision making with school choice,"
Journal of Public Economics,
Elsevier, vol. 91(5-6), pages 823-848, June.
- Eric A. Hanushek & John F. Kain & Steven G. Rivkin & Gregory F. Branch, 2005. "Charter School Quality and Parental Decision Making With School Choice," NBER Working Papers 11252, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Eric A. Hanushek & John F. Kain & Steven G. Rivkin & Gregory F. Branch, 2005. "Charter School Quality and Parental Decision Making with School Choice," Discussion Papers 04-024, Stanford Institute for Economic Policy Research.
- Eric A. Hanushek & Lori L. Taylor, 1990. "Alternative Assessments of the Performance of Schools: Measurement of State Variations in Achievement," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 25(2), pages 179-201.
- Conroy, Stephen J. & Arguea, Nestor M., 2008. "An estimation of technical efficiency for Florida public elementary schools," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 27(6), pages 655-663, December.
- Elder, Todd & Jepsen, Christopher, 2014.
"Are Catholic primary schools more effective than public primary schools?,"
Journal of Urban Economics,
Elsevier, vol. 80(C), pages 28-38.
- Todd Elder & Christopher Jepsen, 2014. "Are catholic primary schools more effective than public primary schools?," Open Access publications 10197/5553, School of Economics, University College Dublin.
- Christopher Jepsen, 2003. "The Effectiveness of Catholic Primary Schooling," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 38(4).
- Tanja Kirjavainen, 2012. "Efficiency of Finnish general upper secondary schools: an application of stochastic frontier analysis with panel data," Education Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 20(4), pages 343-364, April.
- Simar, Leopold & Wilson, Paul W., 2007. "Estimation and inference in two-stage, semi-parametric models of production processes," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 136(1), pages 31-64, January.
- Francis Vella, 1999. "Do Catholic Schools Make a Difference? Evidence from Australia," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 34(1), pages 208-224.
- Battese, G E & Coelli, T J, 1995. "A Model for Technical Inefficiency Effects in a Stochastic Frontier Production Function for Panel Data," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 20(2), pages 325-32.
- Gronberg, Timothy J. & Jansen, Dennis W. & Taylor, Lori L., 2012. "The relative efficiency of charter schools: A cost frontier approach," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 31(2), pages 302-317.
- Buly A. Cardak & Joe Vecci, 2013.
"Catholic School Effectiveness in Australia: A Reassessment Using Selection on Observed and Unobserved Variables,"
2013.05, School of Economics, La Trobe University.
- Cardak, Buly A. & Vecci, Joe, 2013. "Catholic school effectiveness in Australia: A reassessment using selection on observed and unobserved variables," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 37(C), pages 34-45.
- Tommaso Agasisti, 2013. "The efficiency of Italian secondary schools and the potential role of competition: a data envelopment analysis using OECD-PISA2006 data," Education Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 21(5), pages 520-544, December.
- Kalyan Chakraborty & Vincent C. Blackburn, 2013. "Efficiency and Equity in Funding for Government Schools in Australia," Australian Economic Papers, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 52(3-4), pages 127-142, December.
- Andrew Street, 2003. "How much confidence should we place in efficiency estimates?," Health Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 12(11), pages 895-907.
- Shawna Grosskopf & Kathy J. Hayes & Lori L. Taylor, 2009. "The Relative Efficiency Of Charter Schools," Annals of Public and Cooperative Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 80(1), pages 67-87, 03.
- Bradley, Steve & Johnes, Geraint & Millington, Jim, 2001. "The effect of competition on the efficiency of secondary schools in England," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 135(3), pages 545-568, December.
- Laurens Cherchye & Kristof De Witte & Erwin Ooghe, 2008. "Equity and efficiency in private and public education: a nonparametric comparison," Working Papers Department of Economics ces0725, KU Leuven, Faculty of Economics and Business, Department of Economics.
- Andrew Leigh, 2009.
"Estimating Teacher Effectiveness From Two-Year Changes in Students’ Test Scores,"
CEPR Discussion Papers
619, Centre for Economic Policy Research, Research School of Economics, Australian National University.
- Leigh, Andrew, 2010. "Estimating teacher effectiveness from two-year changes in students' test scores," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 29(3), pages 480-488, June.
- Steve Bradley & Mirko Draca & Colin Green, 2004. "School Performance in Australia: Is There a Role for Quasi-Markets?," Australian Economic Review, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne Institute of Applied Economic and Social Research, vol. 37(3), pages 271-286, 09.
- Pierre Ouellette & Valerie Vierstraete, 2005. "An evaluation of the efficiency of Quebec's school boards using the Data Envelopment Analysis method," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 37(14), pages 1643-1653.
- Grosskopf, Shawna & Moutray, Chad, 2001. "Evaluating performance in Chicago public high schools in the wake of decentralization," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 20(1), pages 1-14, February.
- Haelermans, Carla & De Witte, Kristof & Blank, Jos L.T., 2012. "On the allocation of resources for secondary schools," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 31(5), pages 575-586.
- Cherchye, Laurens & De Witte, Kristof & Ooghe, Erwin & Nicaise, Ides, 2010. "Efficiency and equity in private and public education: A nonparametric comparison," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 202(2), pages 563-573, April.
- Hédi Essid & Pierre Ouellette & Stephane Vigeant, 2011.
"Small is not that beautiful after all: Measuring the scale efficiency of Tunisian High Schools using a DEA-bootstrap method,"
- Hédi Essid & Pierre Ouellette & Stéphane Vigeant, 2013. "Small is not that beautiful after all: measuring the scale efficiency of Tunisian high schools using a DEA-bootstrap method," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 45(9), pages 1109-1120, March.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:56231. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Joachim Winter)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.