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Race and Marriage in the Labor Market: A Discrimination Correspondence Study in a Developing Country

Author

Listed:
  • Arceo-Gomez, Eva O.
  • Campos-Vázquez, Raymundo M.

Abstract

In Mexico, as in most Latin American countries with indigenous populations, it is commonly believed that European phenotypes are preferred to mestizo or indigenous phenotypes. However, it is hard to test for such racial biases in the labor market using official statistics since race can only be inferred from native language. Moreover, employers may think that married females have lower productivity, and hence they may be more reluctant to hire them. We are interested in testing both hypotheses through a field experiment in the labor market. The experiment consisted on sending fictitious curriculums (CVs) responding to job advertisements with randomized information of the applicants. The CVs included photographs representing three distinct phenotypes: Caucasian, mestizo and indigenous. We also randomly vary marital status across gender and phenotype. Hence, our test consists on finding whether there are significant differences in the callback rates. We find that females have 40 percent more callbacks than males. We also find that indigenous looking females are discriminated against, but the effect is not present for males. Interestingly, married females are penalized in the labor market and this penalty is higher for indigenous-looking women. We did not find an effect of marital status on males.

Suggested Citation

  • Arceo-Gomez, Eva O. & Campos-Vázquez, Raymundo M., 2013. "Race and Marriage in the Labor Market: A Discrimination Correspondence Study in a Developing Country," MPRA Paper 48000, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  • Handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:48000
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Bursell, Moa, 2007. "What's in a name? A field experiment test for the existence of ethnic discrimination in the hiring process," SULCIS Working Papers 2007:7, Stockholm University, Linnaeus Center for Integration Studies - SULCIS.
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    Cited by:

    1. Chowdhury, Shyamal & Ooi, Evarn & Slonim, Robert, 2017. "Racial discrimination and white first name adoption: a field experiment in the Australian labour market," Working Papers 2017-15, University of Sydney, School of Economics.
    2. Emmanuel Duguet & Rémi Le Gall & Yannick L’Horty & Pascale Petit, 2018. "How does labour market history influence the access to hiring interviews?," TEPP Working Paper 2018-03, TEPP.
    3. Yusuke Jinnai, 2016. "Do Job Applicants also Discriminate Potential Employers? Evidence from the World's Largest Online Labor Market," Working Papers EMS_2016_03, Research Institute, International University of Japan.
    4. Piopiunik, Marc & Schwerdt, Guido & Simon, Lisa & Woessmann, Ludger, 2018. "Skills, Signals, and Employability: An Experimental Investigation," Rationality and Competition Discussion Paper Series 63, CRC TRR 190 Rationality and Competition.
    5. Zschirnt, Eva & Ruedin, Didier, 2016. "Ethnic discrimination in hiring decisions: A meta-analysis of correspondence tests 1990–2015," EconStor Preprints 142176, ZBW - German National Library of Economics.
    6. Javier Cano-Urbina & Patrick L. Mason, 2016. "Acculturation and the labor market in Mexico," IZA Journal of Labor Policy, Springer;Forschungsinstitut zur Zukunft der Arbeit GmbH (IZA), vol. 5(1), pages 1-29, December.
    7. Asali, Muhammad & Pignatti, Norberto & Skhirtladze, Sophiko, 2017. "Employment Discrimination in Georgia: Evidence from a Field Experiment," MPRA Paper 78230, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    8. Eva O. Arceo-Gómez & Raymundo M. Campos-Vázquez, 2015. "How Does Explicit Discrimination in Job Ads Interact with Discrimination in Callbacks? Evidence form a Correspondence Study in Mexico City," Working papers DTE 593, CIDE, División de Economía.
    9. repec:cep:cverdp:012 is not listed on IDEAS
    10. Campos Vázquez, Raymundo M. & Medina Cortina, Eduardo M., 2018. "Identidad social y estereotipos por color de piel. Aspiraciones y desempeño en jóvenes mexicanos," El Trimestre Económico, Fondo de Cultura Económica, vol. 0(337), pages .53-79, enero-mar.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Discrimination; Gender; Race; Marriage; Labor market; Mexico; Hiring; Correspondence study.;

    JEL classification:

    • J12 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Marriage; Marital Dissolution; Family Structure
    • J15 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Economics of Minorities, Races, Indigenous Peoples, and Immigrants; Non-labor Discrimination
    • J16 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Economics of Gender; Non-labor Discrimination
    • J7 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Labor Discrimination
    • J71 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Labor Discrimination - - - Hiring and Firing
    • J83 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Labor Standards - - - Workers' Rights
    • O54 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economywide Country Studies - - - Latin America; Caribbean

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