Is Gold Investment A Hedge against Inflation in Pakistan? A Cointegtaion and Causality Analysis in the Presence of Structural Breaks
Last few years have witnessed overwhelming investments in the gold market both directly and indirectly. These overwhelming investments in the gold market by individual and institutional investors have gained the attention of the research community. Numerous studies have examined how investment in gold can be used to hedge against high inflation. The current study investigates the gold investment as an effective hedge to deal with inflation in case of Pakistan in long run as well as in short run. In doing so, time series data on gold prices, economic growth and inflation is used for the period 1997-2011 utilizing quarterly frequency. The study applies the ARDL bounds testing technique of cointegration for long run, and innovative accounting approach (IAA) to examine the direction of causality in variables. Our findings reveal that investment in gold is the best hedge to address inflation in both long run and short run in case of Pakistan. The implications and applications of the study have been discussed in detail.
|Date of creation:||01 Jul 2013|
|Date of revision:||01 Jul 2013|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: Ludwigstraße 33, D-80539 Munich, Germany|
Web page: https://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de
More information through EDIRC
References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Blose, Laurence E., 2010. "Gold prices, cost of carry, and expected inflation," Journal of Economics and Business, Elsevier, vol. 62(1), pages 35-47, January.
- Dirk G. Baur & Brian M. Lucey, 2010.
"Is Gold a Hedge or a Safe Haven? An Analysis of Stocks, Bonds and Gold,"
The Financial Review,
Eastern Finance Association, vol. 45(2), pages 217-229, May.
- Dirk G. Baur & Brian M. Lucey, 2007. "Is Gold a Hedge or a Safe Haven? An Analysis of Stocks, Bonds and Gold," The Institute for International Integration Studies Discussion Paper Series iiisdp198, IIIS.
- Jordan Shan, 2005. "Does financial development 'lead' economic growth? A vector auto-regression appraisal," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 37(12), pages 1353-1367.
- Greg Tkacz, 2007. "Gold Prices and Inflation," Staff Working Papers 07-35, Bank of Canada.
- Brian Lucey & Edel Tully, 2006. "Seasonality, risk and return in daily COMEX gold and silver data 1982-2002," Applied Financial Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 16(4), pages 319-333.
- Brian Lucey & Edel Tully, 2005. "Seasonality, Risk And Return In Daily COMEX Gold And Silver Data 1982-2002," The Institute for International Integration Studies Discussion Paper Series iiisdp057, IIIS.
- A. Sen, 2003. "Limiting behaviour of Dickey-Fuller t-tests under the crash model alternative," Econometrics Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 6(2), pages 421-429, December.
- Dipak Ghosh & Eric Levin & Robert E Wright & The Centre for Economic Policy Research, "undated". "Gold as an Inflation Hedge?," Working Papers Series 96/10, University of Stirling, Division of Economics.
- Dipak Ghosh & Eric J. Levin & Peter Macmillan & Robert E. Wright, 2000. "Gold as an Inflation Hedge?," Discussion Paper Series, Department of Economics 200021, Department of Economics, University of St. Andrews.
- Zivot, Eric & Andrews, Donald W K, 2002. "Further Evidence on the Great Crash, the Oil-Price Shock, and the Unit-Root Hypothesis," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 20(1), pages 25-44, January.
- Zivot, Eric & Andrews, Donald W K, 1992. "Further Evidence on the Great Crash, the Oil-Price Shock, and the Unit-Root Hypothesis," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 10(3), pages 251-270, July.
- Eric Zivot & Donald W.K. Andrews, 1990. "Further Evidence on the Great Crash, the Oil Price Shock, and the Unit Root Hypothesis," Cowles Foundation Discussion Papers 944, Cowles Foundation for Research in Economics, Yale University.
- Tom Doan, "undated". "ZIVOT: RATS procedure to perform Zivot-Andrews Unit Root Test," Statistical Software Components RTS00236, Boston College Department of Economics.
- Andrew C. Worthington & Mosayeb Pahlavani, 2007. "Gold investment as an inflationary hedge: cointegration evidence with allowance for endogenous structural breaks," Applied Financial Economics Letters, Taylor and Francis Journals, vol. 3(4), pages 259-262.
- Solt, Michael E & Swanson, Paul J, 1981. "On the Efficiency of the Markets for Gold and Silver," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 54(3), pages 453-478, July.
- Wang, Kuan-Min & Lee, Yuan-Ming & Thi, Thanh-Binh Nguyen, 2011. "Time and place where gold acts as an inflation hedge: An application of long-run and short-run threshold model," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 28(3), pages 806-819, May.
- Muhammad Shahbaz, 2010. "Income inequality-economic growth and non-linearity: a case of Pakistan," International Journal of Social Economics, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 37(8), pages 613-636, July.
- M. Hashem Pesaran & Yongcheol Shin & Richard J. Smith, 2001. "Bounds testing approaches to the analysis of level relationships," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 16(3), pages 289-326.
- Morley, Bruce, 2006. "Causality between economic growth and immigration: An ARDL bounds testing approach," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 90(1), pages 72-76, January.
- Beckmann, Joscha & Czudaj, Robert, 2013. "Gold as an inflation hedge in a time-varying coefficient framework," The North American Journal of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 24(C), pages 208-222.
- Beckmann, Joscha & Czudaj, Robert, 2012. "Gold as an Infl ation Hedge in a Time-Varying Coefficient Framework," Ruhr Economic Papers 362, RWI - Leibniz-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung, Ruhr-University Bochum, TU Dortmund University, University of Duisburg-Essen.
- Perron, Pierre & Rodriguez, Gabriel, 2003. "GLS detrending, efficient unit root tests and structural change," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 115(1), pages 1-27, July.
- Elliott, Graham & Rothenberg, Thomas J & Stock, James H, 1996. "Efficient Tests for an Autoregressive Unit Root," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 64(4), pages 813-836, July.
- Elliott, Graham, 1999. "Efficient Tests for a Unit Root When the Initial Observation Is Drawn from Its Unconditional Distribution," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 40(3), pages 767-783, August.
- Graham Elliott & Thomas J. Rothenberg & James H. Stock, 1992. "Efficient Tests for an Autoregressive Unit Root," NBER Technical Working Papers 0130, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Tom Doan, "undated". "GLSDETREND: RATS procedure to perform local to unity GLS detrending," Statistical Software Components RTS00077, Boston College Department of Economics.
- Tom Doan, "undated". "ERSTEST: RATS procedure to perform Elliott-Rothenberg-Stock unit root tests," Statistical Software Components RTS00066, Boston College Department of Economics.
- Helmut Lütkepohl, 2006. "Structural vector autoregressive analysis for cointegrated variables," AStA Advances in Statistical Analysis, Springer;German Statistical Society, vol. 90(1), pages 75-88, March.
- Helmut Luetkepohl, 2005. "Structural Vector Autoregressive Analysis for Cointegrated Variables," Economics Working Papers ECO2005/02, European University Institute.
- DeJong, David N, et al, 1992. "Integration versus Trend Stationarity in Time Series," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 60(2), pages 423-433, March.
- Bahram Adrangi & Arjun Chatrath & Rohan Christie David, 2000. "Price discovery in strategically-linked markets: the case of the gold-silver spread," Applied Financial Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 10(3), pages 227-234.
- Brian M. Lucey & Edel Tully, 2006. "The evolving relationship between gold and silver 1978--2002: evidence from a dynamic cointegration analysis: a note," Applied Financial Economics Letters, Taylor and Francis Journals, vol. 2(1), pages 47-53, January.
- Serena Ng & Pierre Perron, 2001. "LAG Length Selection and the Construction of Unit Root Tests with Good Size and Power," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 69(6), pages 1519-1554, November.
- Serena Ng & Pierre Perron, 1997. "Lag Length Selection and the Construction of Unit Root Tests with Good Size and Power," Boston College Working Papers in Economics 369, Boston College Department of Economics, revised 01 Sep 2000.
- Graham Smith, 2002. "Tests of the random walk hypothesis for London gold prices," Applied Economics Letters, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 9(10), pages 671-674.
- Brian M Lucey, Valerio Poti, Edel Tully, 2006. "International Portfolio Formation, Skewness & the Role of Gold," Frontiers in Finance and Economics, SKEMA Business School, vol. 3(1), pages 49-68, June.
- Brian M Lucey & Edel Tully & Valerio Poti, 2005. "International Portfolio Formation, Skewness & the Role of Gold," The Institute for International Integration Studies Discussion Paper Series iiisdp030, IIIS.
- Mahdavi, Saeid & Zhou, Su, 1997. "Gold and commodity prices as leading indicators of inflation: Tests of long-run relationship and predictive performance," Journal of Economics and Business, Elsevier, vol. 49(5), pages 475-489.
- Ciner, Cetin & Gurdgiev, Constantin & Lucey, Brian M., 2013. "Hedges and safe havens: An examination of stocks, bonds, gold, oil and exchange rates," International Review of Financial Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 29(C), pages 202-211.
- Paresh Kumar Narayan, 2005. "The saving and investment nexus for China: evidence from cointegration tests," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 37(17), pages 1979-1990.
- Capie, Forrest & Mills, Terence C. & Wood, Geoffrey, 2005. "Gold as a hedge against the dollar," Journal of International Financial Markets, Institutions and Money, Elsevier, vol. 15(4), pages 343-352, October.
- Ho, Yan-Ki, 1985. "A test of the incrementally efficient market hypothesis for the London gold market," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 19(1), pages 67-70. Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:47924. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Joachim Winter)
If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.
If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.
If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.
Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.