IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this article

Testing for causality between the gold return and stock market performance: evidence for ‘gold investment in case of emergency’


  • Takashi Miyazaki
  • Shigeyuki Hamori


This article investigates the causal relationships between gold and stock market performance or uncertainty by employing nonuniform weighting cross-correlations. In our sample period covering the last decade, we detect a unidirectional causality in mean from stock to gold, but find no causality in variance between the two. For subsample periods divided into pre- and post-current financial crisis, although we detect bidirectional causality in mean for the first sample period, there exists only a unilateral causality in mean and variance from stock to gold for the second sample period. These findings imply that flight-to-quality has occurred during the recent financial turmoil.

Suggested Citation

  • Takashi Miyazaki & Shigeyuki Hamori, 2013. "Testing for causality between the gold return and stock market performance: evidence for ‘gold investment in case of emergency’," Applied Financial Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 23(1), pages 27-40, January.
  • Handle: RePEc:taf:apfiec:v:23:y:2013:i:1:p:27-40 DOI: 10.1080/09603107.2012.699184

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    Download Restriction: Access to full text is restricted to subscribers.

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to search for a different version of it.

    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Dirk G. Baur & Brian M. Lucey, 2010. "Is Gold a Hedge or a Safe Haven? An Analysis of Stocks, Bonds and Gold," The Financial Review, Eastern Finance Association, vol. 45(2), pages 217-229, May.
    2. FrancisX. Diebold & Kamil Yilmaz, 2009. "Measuring Financial Asset Return and Volatility Spillovers, with Application to Global Equity Markets," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 119(534), pages 158-171, January.
    3. Caporale, Guglielmo Maria & Pittis, Nikitas & Spagnolo, Nicola, 2002. "Testing for Causality-in-Variance: An Application to the East Asian Markets," International Journal of Finance & Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 7(3), pages 235-245, July.
    4. Nelson, Daniel B, 1991. "Conditional Heteroskedasticity in Asset Returns: A New Approach," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 59(2), pages 347-370, March.
    5. Takeshi Hoshikawa, 2008. "The causal relationships between foreign exchange intervention and exchange rate," Applied Economics Letters, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 15(7), pages 519-522.
    6. Aggarwal, Raj & Lucey, Brian M., 2007. "Psychological barriers in gold prices?," Review of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 16(2), pages 217-230.
    7. Brian Lucey & Edel Tully, 2006. "Seasonality, risk and return in daily COMEX gold and silver data 1982-2002," Applied Financial Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 16(4), pages 319-333.
    8. Baur, Dirk G. & McDermott, Thomas K., 2010. "Is gold a safe haven? International evidence," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 34(8), pages 1886-1898, August.
    9. Andrew C. Worthington & Mosayeb Pahlavani, 2007. "Gold investment as an inflationary hedge: cointegration evidence with allowance for endogenous structural breaks," Applied Financial Economics Letters, Taylor and Francis Journals, vol. 3(4), pages 259-262.
    10. Yilmaz, Kamil, 2010. "Return and volatility spillovers among the East Asian equity markets," Journal of Asian Economics, Elsevier, vol. 21(3), pages 304-313, June.
    11. Go Tamakoshi, 2011. "European sovereign debt crisis and linkage of long-term government bond yields," Economics Bulletin, AccessEcon, vol. 31(3), pages 2191-2203.
    12. Chan, Kam Fong & Treepongkaruna, Sirimon & Brooks, Robert & Gray, Stephen, 2011. "Asset market linkages: Evidence from financial, commodity and real estate assets," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 35(6), pages 1415-1426, June.
    13. Inagaki, Kazuyuki, 2007. "Testing for volatility spillover between the British pound and the euro," Research in International Business and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 21(2), pages 161-174, June.
    14. Ramaprasad Bhar & Shigeyuki Hamori, 2004. "Information Flow between Price Change and Trading Volume in Gold Futures Contracts," International Journal of Business and Economics, College of Business and College of Finance, Feng Chia University, Taichung, Taiwan, vol. 3(1), pages 45-56, April.
    15. Francis X. Diebold & Kamil Yilmaz, 2011. "Equity Market Spillovers in the Americas," Central Banking, Analysis, and Economic Policies Book Series,in: Rodrigo Alfaro (ed.), Financial Stability, Monetary Policy, and Central Banking, edition 1, volume 15, chapter 7, pages 199-214 Central Bank of Chile.
    16. Hong, Yongmiao, 2001. "A test for volatility spillover with application to exchange rates," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 103(1-2), pages 183-224, July.
    17. Sari, Ramazan & Soytas, Ugur & Hacihasanoglu, Erk, 2011. "Do global risk perceptions influence world oil prices?," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 33(3), pages 515-524, May.
    18. Cheung, Yin-Wong & Ng, Lilian K., 1996. "A causality-in-variance test and its application to financial market prices," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 72(1-2), pages 33-48.
    19. Giam Quang Do & Michael Mcaleer & Songsak Sriboonchitta, 2009. "Effects of international gold market on stock exchange volatility: evidence from asean emerging stock markets," Economics Bulletin, AccessEcon, vol. 29(2), pages 599-610.
    20. Graham Smith, 2002. "Tests of the random walk hypothesis for London gold prices," Applied Economics Letters, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 9(10), pages 671-674.
    21. Mahdavi, Saeid & Zhou, Su, 1997. "Gold and commodity prices as leading indicators of inflation: Tests of long-run relationship and predictive performance," Journal of Economics and Business, Elsevier, vol. 49(5), pages 475-489.
    22. Ciner, Cetin & Gurdgiev, Constantin & Lucey, Brian M., 2013. "Hedges and safe havens: An examination of stocks, bonds, gold, oil and exchange rates," International Review of Financial Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 29(C), pages 202-211.
    23. Capie, Forrest & Mills, Terence C. & Wood, Geoffrey, 2005. "Gold as a hedge against the dollar," Journal of International Financial Markets, Institutions and Money, Elsevier, vol. 15(4), pages 343-352, October.
    24. Mark, Joy, 2011. "Gold and the US dollar: Hedge or haven?," Finance Research Letters, Elsevier, vol. 8(3), pages 120-131, September.
    25. Bhar, Ramaprasad & Hamori, Shigeyuki, 2005. "Causality in variance and the type of traders in crude oil futures," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 27(3), pages 527-539, May.
    26. Myeong Hwan Kim & David A. Dilts, 2011. "The Relationship of the value of the Dollar, and the Prices of Gold and Oil: A Tale of Asset Risk," Economics Bulletin, AccessEcon, vol. 31(2), pages 1151-1162.
    27. Bhar, Ramaprasad & Hamori, Shigeyuki, 2008. "Information content of commodity futures prices for monetary policy," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 25(2), pages 274-283, March.
    28. Pukthuanthong, Kuntara & Roll, Richard, 2011. "Gold and the Dollar (and the Euro, Pound, and Yen)," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 35(8), pages 2070-2083, August.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)


    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.

    Cited by:

    1. Choudhry, Taufiq & Hassan, Syed S. & Shabi, Sarosh, 2015. "Relationship between gold and stock markets during the global financial crisis: Evidence from nonlinear causality tests," International Review of Financial Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 41(C), pages 247-256.
    2. repec:eco:journ1:2014-03-02 is not listed on IDEAS
    3. Han, Yingying & Gong, Pu & Zhou, Xiang, 2016. "Correlations and risk contagion between mixed assets and mixed-asset portfolio VaR measurements in a dynamic view: An application based on time varying copula models," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 444(C), pages 940-953.
    4. Hatice Gaye Gencer & Zafer Musoglu, 2014. "Volatility Transmission and Spillovers among Gold, Bonds and Stocks: An Empirical Evidence from Turkey," International Journal of Economics and Financial Issues, Econjournals, vol. 4(4), pages 705-713.
    5. repec:eee:phsmap:v:490:y:2018:i:c:p:1028-1045 is not listed on IDEAS
    6. Takashi Miyazaki & Shigeyuki Hamori, 2014. "Cointegration with Regime Shift between Gold and Financial Variables," International Journal of Financial Research, International Journal of Financial Research, Sciedu Press, vol. 5(4), pages 90-97, October.
    7. repec:eee:eneeco:v:68:y:2017:i:c:p:440-453 is not listed on IDEAS

    More about this item


    Access and download statistics


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:taf:apfiec:v:23:y:2013:i:1:p:27-40. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Chris Longhurst). General contact details of provider: .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.