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Income and consumption smoothing and welfare gains across Pacific Island countries: The role of remittances and foreign aid

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  • Balli, Faruk
  • Balli, Hatice O.

Abstract

We examine the potential welfare gains and channels of income smoothing for Pacific Island Countries (PICs) and nd that, under full risk sharing overall welfare gains across all PICs (particularly, Kiribati, Palau, and Papua New Guinea) are at desirable levels. However, for Australia, the potential welfare gain from risk sharing is almost similar to the gain it obtains if Australia attains full risk sharing with the rest of the OECD countries or with New Zealand alone. We also break down output using the framework of Sorensen and Yosha (1998) to quantify the extent and channels of risk sharing across PICs. For PICs, income-smoothing channels (net factor income and current transfers) play a significant role in buffering the output shock compared to the performance of those channels on smoothing the output shock for OECD countries. Domestic savings also smooth a fair portion of shocks to output, but the extent is much lower compared to that of OECD countries. Further, we analyze the effect of remittances and foreign aid on income smoothing for the PICs exclud- ing Australia and New Zealand. Income smoothing via remittances is highly volatile and significant in recent years, while foreign aid seems to be a stronger and more stable channel for smoothing domestic output shocks for PICs.

Suggested Citation

  • Balli, Faruk & Balli, Hatice O., 2010. "Income and consumption smoothing and welfare gains across Pacific Island countries: The role of remittances and foreign aid," MPRA Paper 29547, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 24 Feb 2011.
  • Handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:29547
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    Cited by:

    1. Eduardo Silva & Alex Ferreira, 2023. "Risk-sharing within Brazil and South America," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 65(2), pages 661-695, August.
    2. Balli, Faruk & Rana, Faisal, 2015. "Determinants of risk sharing through remittances," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 55(C), pages 107-116.
    3. Zouri, Stéphane, 2021. "New evidence on international risk-sharing in the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS)," International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 165(C), pages 121-139.
    4. Christian E. Weller & Ghazal Zulfiqar, 2013. "Financial Market Diversity and Macroeconomic Stability," Working Papers wp332, Political Economy Research Institute, University of Massachusetts at Amherst.
    5. Supriyo De & Ergys Islamaj & M. Ayhan Kose & S. Reza Yousefi, 2019. "Remittances over the business cycle: Theory and evidence," Economic Notes, Banca Monte dei Paschi di Siena SpA, vol. 48(3), November.
    6. Jounghyeon Kim, 2019. "The Impact of Remittances on Exchange Rate and Money Supply: Does “Openness” Matter in Developing Countries?," Emerging Markets Finance and Trade, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 55(15), pages 3682-3707, December.
    7. Faruk Balli & Faisal Rana, 2014. "Determinants of risk sharing through remittances: cross-country evidence," CAMA Working Papers 2014-12, Centre for Applied Macroeconomic Analysis, Crawford School of Public Policy, The Australian National University.
    8. Masayoshi Hayashi, 2013. "On the Decomposition of Regional Stabilization and Redistribution," CIRJE F-Series CIRJE-F-910, CIRJE, Faculty of Economics, University of Tokyo.
    9. Faruk Balli & Filippo Maria Pericoli & Eleonora Pierucci, 2016. "Channels of Risk Sharing at Micro Level: Savings, Investments and Risk Aversion Heterogeneity," International Journal of Finance & Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 21(1), pages 90-104, January.
    10. Xavier Debrun & Paul R. Masson, 2013. "Modelling Monetary Union in Southern Africa: Welfare Evaluation for the CMA and SADC," South African Journal of Economics, Economic Society of South Africa, vol. 81(2), pages 275-291, June.
    11. Balli, F. & Pericoli, F.M. & Pierucci, E., 2014. "Foreign portfolio diversification and risk-sharing," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 125(2), pages 187-190.
    12. Faruk Balli & Eleonora Pierucci & Jian Gan, 2020. "Determinants of risk sharing via exports: trade openness and specialisation," International Journal of Computational Economics and Econometrics, Inderscience Enterprises Ltd, vol. 10(4), pages 380-397.
    13. Faruk Balli & Eleonora Pierucci, 2015. "Globalization and international risk-sharing: do political and social factors matter more than economic integration?," CAMA Working Papers 2015-04, Centre for Applied Macroeconomic Analysis, Crawford School of Public Policy, The Australian National University.
    14. Balli, Faruk & De Bruin, Anne & Balli, Hatice Ozer & Karimov, Jamshid, 2020. "Corporate net income and payout smoothing under Shari'ah compliance," Pacific-Basin Finance Journal, Elsevier, vol. 60(C).
    15. Balli Faruk & Pierucci Eleonora, 2020. "Risk Sharing and Institutional Quality: Evidence from OECD and Emerging Economies," Scottish Journal of Political Economy, Scottish Economic Society, vol. 67(1), pages 53-71, February.
    16. Jounghyeon Kim, 2013. "Remittances and Currency Crisis: The Case of Developing and Emerging Countries," Emerging Markets Finance and Trade, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 49(6), pages 88-111, November.

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    More about this item

    Keywords

    Foreign Aid; Remittance In ows; International Integration; Income Smoothing; Consumption Smoothing; Pacic Island Countries; Welfare Gains from Risk Sharing;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • F15 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Economic Integration
    • E25 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Consumption, Saving, Production, Employment, and Investment - - - Aggregate Factor Income Distribution
    • E21 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Consumption, Saving, Production, Employment, and Investment - - - Consumption; Saving; Wealth

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