IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/jrs/wpaper/201813.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

New Risk Sharing Channels in OECD Countries: a Heterogeneous Panel VAR

Author

Abstract

We aim to improve upon the existing empirical literature on international risk sharing under three dimensions. First, we generalize dynamic multi-equation approaches to the estimation of risk sharing channels, by adopting a Heterogeneous Panel VAR model. Within this framework, the coefficients representing the extent of risk sharing achieved through the different mechanisms are allowed to vary across countries. Second, we introduce two new risk sharing channels – namely, government consumption and the real exchange rate (that we further decompose into relative prices and the nominal exchange rate) – which allow us to investigate the role of fiscal policy and international price adjustments in the absorption of macroeconomic shocks. Third, we establish a better link between the “channels†empirical model and a theoretical formulation of the risk sharing condition which allows for PPP violations. Our empirical analysis, for a set of 21 OECD countries over 1960-2016, contributes to identifying the geographical structure and dynamics of risk sharing channels and to describing their evolution in the latest half-century. For the OECD sample as a whole, we confirm through 2016 the strong smoothing role played by credit markets and the small degree of risk sharing achieved through factor incomes. Interestingly, government consumption tends to have a dis-smoothing effect, due to its counter-cyclical movements. Another noteworthy result is the negative risk sharing effect of the real exchange rate, driven by the dis-smoothing role played by the movements of the nominal exchange rate, only partially offset by relative price adjustments. The evolution of these risk sharing mechanisms is diverse, but the most important channels – namely credit markets and real exchange rate adjustments – exhibit slightly positive trends for the first half of the period, negative trends afterwards, and a recovery in more recent years. Our results demonstrate that the extent of risk sharing is strikingly different across countries, especially if we take into account valuation effects through the real exchange rate. Even considering only traditional risk sharing channels, the country-specific magnitude of risk sharing on impact ranges from around 15% to over 80%. In addition, dynamics are also quite diverse across countries; for example, risk sharing through credit markets, while quite effective on impact, provokes dis-smoothing for about two thirds of the countries from the second year onwards. Our approach is of particular interest for policy makers, as it allows identifying the strengths and the weaknesses of the institutional and behavioral risk sharing mechanisms at work in different countries.

Suggested Citation

  • Asdrubali, Pierfederico & Kim, Soyoung & Pericoli, Filippo & Poncela, Pilar, 2018. "New Risk Sharing Channels in OECD Countries: a Heterogeneous Panel VAR," Working Papers 2018-13, Joint Research Centre, European Commission (Ispra site).
  • Handle: RePEc:jrs:wpaper:201813
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://publications.jrc.ec.europa.eu/repository/bitstream/JRC113419/wp.pdf
    Download Restriction: no
    ---><---

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Obstfeld, Maurice, 1994. "Risk-Taking, Global Diversification, and Growth," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 84(5), pages 1310-1329, December.
    2. Peter Fuleky & Luigi Ventura & Qianxue Zhao, 2015. "International Risk Sharing in the Short and in the long run under Country Heterogeneity," International Journal of Finance & Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 20(4), pages 374-384, October.
    3. Kollmann, Robert, 1995. "Consumption, real exchange rates and the structure of international asset markets," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 14(2), pages 191-211, April.
    4. Giancarlo Corsetti & Luca Dedola & Sylvain Leduc, 2008. "International Risk Sharing and the Transmission of Productivity Shocks," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 75(2), pages 443-473.
    5. Darrell Duffie & Chi-Fu Huang, 2005. "Implementing Arrow-Debreu Equilibria By Continuous Trading Of Few Long-Lived Securities," World Scientific Book Chapters, in: Sudipto Bhattacharya & George M Constantinides (ed.), Theory Of Valuation, chapter 4, pages 97-127, World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd..
    6. Sebnem Kalemli-Ozcan & Bent E. Sørensen & Oved Yosha, 2003. "Risk Sharing and Industrial Specialization: Regional and International Evidence," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 93(3), pages 903-918, June.
    7. Pesaran, M. Hashem, 2015. "Time Series and Panel Data Econometrics," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, number 9780198759980.
    8. Townsend, Robert M, 1994. "Risk and Insurance in Village India," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 62(3), pages 539-591, May.
    9. Susan Dynarski & Jonathan Gruber, 1997. "Can Families Smooth Variable Earnings?," Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, Economic Studies Program, The Brookings Institution, vol. 28(1), pages 229-303.
    10. Baxter, Marianne & Crucini, Mario J, 1995. "Business Cycles and the Asset Structure of Foreign Trade," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 36(4), pages 821-854, November.
    11. Backus, David K & Kehoe, Patrick J & Kydland, Finn E, 1992. "International Real Business Cycles," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 100(4), pages 745-775, August.
    12. Lewis, Karen K, 1996. "What Can Explain the Apparent Lack of International Consumption Risk Sharing?," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 104(2), pages 267-297, April.
    13. Sorensen, Bent E. & Wu, Yi-Tsung & Yosha, Oved & Zhu, Yu, 2007. "Home bias and international risk sharing: Twin puzzles separated at birth," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 26(4), pages 587-605, June.
    14. Leibrecht Markus & Scharler Johann, 2012. "Banks, Financial Markets and International Consumption Risk Sharing," German Economic Review, De Gruyter, vol. 13(3), pages 331-351, August.
    15. Heathcote, Jonathan & Perri, Fabrizio, 2002. "Financial autarky and international business cycles," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 49(3), pages 601-627, April.
    16. Baxter, Marianne, 1995. "International trade and business cycles," Handbook of International Economics, in: G. M. Grossman & K. Rogoff (ed.), Handbook of International Economics, edition 1, volume 3, chapter 35, pages 1801-1864, Elsevier.
    17. Cole, Harold L. & Obstfeld, Maurice, 1991. "Commodity trade and international risk sharing : How much do financial markets matter?," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 28(1), pages 3-24, August.
    18. Becker, Sascha O. & Hoffmann, Mathias, 2006. "Intra- and international risk-sharing in the short run and the long run," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 50(3), pages 777-806, April.
    19. Faruk Balli & Sebnem Kalemli‐Ozcan & Bent E. Sørensen, 2012. "Risk sharing through capital gains," Canadian Journal of Economics/Revue canadienne d'économique, John Wiley & Sons, vol. 45(2), pages 472-492, May.
    20. Maurice Obstfeld, 1985. "Floating Exchange Rates: Experience and Prospects," Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, Economic Studies Program, The Brookings Institution, vol. 16(2), pages 369-464.
    21. Bent E. S�rensen & Oved Yosha, 1998. "International Risk Sharing and European Monetary Unification," Temi di discussione (Economic working papers) 327, Bank of Italy, Economic Research and International Relations Area.
    22. Backus, David K. & Smith, Gregor W., 1993. "Consumption and real exchange rates in dynamic economies with non-traded goods," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 35(3-4), pages 297-316, November.
    23. Asdrubali, Pierfederico & Kim, Soyoung, 2004. "Dynamic risksharing in the United States and Europe," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 51(4), pages 809-836, May.
    24. Brandt, Michael W. & Cochrane, John H. & Santa-Clara, Pedro, 2006. "International risk sharing is better than you think, or exchange rates are too smooth," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 53(4), pages 671-698, May.
    25. Edward N. Wolff, 1998. "Recent Trends in the Size Distribution of Household Wealth," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 12(3), pages 131-150, Summer.
    26. Pesaran, M. Hashem & Smith, Ron, 1995. "Estimating long-run relationships from dynamic heterogeneous panels," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 68(1), pages 79-113, July.
    27. Stockman, Alan C & Tesar, Linda L, 1995. "Tastes and Technology in a Two-Country Model of the Business Cycle: Explaining International Comovements," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 85(1), pages 168-185, March.
    28. Canova, Fabio & Ravn, Morten O, 1996. "International Consumption Risk Sharing," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 37(3), pages 573-601, August.
    29. Eleonora Pierucci & Luigi Ventura, 2010. "Risk Sharing: A Long Run Issue?," Open Economies Review, Springer, vol. 21(5), pages 705-730, November.
    30. Sorensen, Bent E. & Yosha, Oved, 1998. "International risk sharing and European monetary unification," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 45(2), pages 211-238, August.
    31. K. J. Arrow, 1964. "The Role of Securities in the Optimal Allocation of Risk-bearing," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 31(2), pages 91-96.
    32. Balli, Faruk & Basher, Syed Abul & Balli, Hatice Ozer, 2013. "International income risk-sharing and the global financial crisis of 2008–2009," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 37(7), pages 2303-2313.
    33. Sims, Christopher A, 1980. "Macroeconomics and Reality," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 48(1), pages 1-48, January.
    34. Rudiger Ahrend & Jens Matthias Arnold & Charlotte Moeser, 2011. "The Sharing of Macroeconomic Risk: Who Loses (and Gains) from Macroeconomic Shocks," OECD Economics Department Working Papers 877, OECD Publishing.
    35. Sebnem Kalemli-Ozcan & Emiliano Luttini & Bent Sørensen, 2014. "Debt Crises and Risk-Sharing: The Role of Markets versus Sovereigns," Scandinavian Journal of Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 116(1), pages 253-276, January.
    36. Giuseppe Cavaliere & Luca Fanelli & Attilio Gardini, 2008. "International dynamic risk sharing," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 23(1), pages 1-16.
    37. Rangvid, Jesper & Santa-Clara, Pedro & Schmeling, Maik, 2016. "Capital market integration and consumption risk sharing over the long run," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 103(C), pages 27-43.
    38. Michael R. Pakko, 1998. "Characterizing Cross-Country Consumption Correlations," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 80(1), pages 169-174, February.
    39. Cochrane, John H, 1991. "A Simple Test of Consumption Insurance," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 99(5), pages 957-976, October.
    40. Mace, Barbara J, 1991. "Full Insurance in the Presence of Aggregate Uncertainty," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 99(5), pages 928-956, October.
    41. Peltonen, Tuomas A. & Sager, Michael, 2009. "Productivity shocks and real exchange rate: a reappraisal," Working Paper Series 1046, European Central Bank.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Zouri, Stéphane, 2021. "New evidence on international risk-sharing in the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS)," International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 165(C), pages 121-139.
    2. Marius Clemens & Stefan Gebauer & Tobias König, 2020. "The Macroeconomic Effects of a European Deposit (Re-) Insurance Scheme," Discussion Papers of DIW Berlin 1873, DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research.
    3. Joongsan Ko, 2020. "Intranational Consumption Risk Sharing in South Korea: 2000–2016," Asian Economic Journal, East Asian Economic Association, vol. 34(1), pages 29-49, March.

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Mathias Hoffmann & Egor Maslov & Bent E. Sørensen & Iryna Stewen, 2019. "Channels of Risk Sharing in the Eurozone: What Can Banking and Capital Market Union Achieve?," IMF Economic Review, Palgrave Macmillan;International Monetary Fund, vol. 67(3), pages 443-495, September.
    2. Balli, Faruk & Sorensen, Bent E., 2007. "Risk Sharing among OECD and EU Countries: The Role of Capital Gains, Capital Income, Transfers, and Saving," MPRA Paper 10223, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    3. Asdrubali, Pierfederico & Kim, Soyoung, 2004. "Dynamic risksharing in the United States and Europe," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 51(4), pages 809-836, May.
    4. Balli, Faruk & Basher, Syed Abul & Balli, Hatice Ozer, 2011. "Income insurance and the determinants of income insurance via foreign asset revenues and foreign liability payments," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 28(5), pages 2296-2306, September.
    5. Vadym Volosovych, 2013. "Risk sharing from international factor income: explaining cross-country differences," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 45(11), pages 1435-1459, April.
    6. Cimadomo, Jacopo & Ciminelli, Gabriele & Furtuna, Oana & Giuliodori, Massimo, 2020. "Private and public risk sharing in the euro area," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 121(C).
    7. Faruk Balli & Sebnem Kalemli-Ozcan & Bent E. Sørensen, 2012. "Risk sharing through capital gains," Canadian Journal of Economics, Canadian Economics Association, vol. 45(2), pages 472-492, May.
    8. Sebnem Kalemli-Ozcan & Bent E. Sørensen & Oved Yosha, 2003. "Risk Sharing and Industrial Specialization: Regional and International Evidence," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 93(3), pages 903-918, June.
    9. Balli, Faruk & Balli, Hatice O., 2011. "Income and consumption smoothing and welfare gains across Pacific Island Countries: The role of remittances and foreign aid," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 28(4), pages 1642-1649, July.
    10. Pierfederico Asdrubali & Soyoung Kim, 2008. "Incomplete Intertemporal Consumption Smoothing and Incomplete Risk Sharing," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 40(7), pages 1521-1531, October.
    11. Balli, Faruk & Rana, Faisal, 2015. "Determinants of risk sharing through remittances," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 55(C), pages 107-116.
    12. Epstein, Brendan & Mukherjee, Rahul & Ramnath, Shanthi, 2016. "Taxes and international risk sharing," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 102(C), pages 310-326.
    13. Pierfederico Asdrubali & Simone Tedeschi & Luigi Ventura, 2020. "Household risk‐sharing channels," Quantitative Economics, Econometric Society, vol. 11(3), pages 1109-1142, July.
    14. Valentina Milano, 2017. "Risk Sharing in the Euro Zone: the Role of European Institutions," Working Papers CELEG 1701, Dipartimento di Economia e Finanza, LUISS Guido Carli.
    15. Faruk Balli & Bent E. Sørensen, 2006. "The Impact of the EMU on Channels of Risk Sharing between Member Countries," Papers of the Annual IUE-SUNY Cortland Conference in Economics, in: Oguz Esen & Ayla Ogus (ed.), Proceedings of the Conference on Human and Economic Resources, pages 399-429, Izmir University of Economics.
    16. Oguz Esen & Ayla Ogus (ed.), 2006. "Proceedings of the International Conference on Human and Economic Resources," Proceedings of the IUE-SUNY Cortland Conference in Economics, Izmir University of Economics, number 2006.
    17. Sebnem Kalemli-Ozcan & Bent E. Sorensen & Oved Yosha, 2004. "Asymmetric Shocks and Risk Sharing in a Monetary Union: Updated Evidence and Policy Implications for Europe," Working Papers 2004-05, Department of Economics, University of Houston.
    18. Kim, H. Youn, 2014. "International financial integration and risk sharing among countries: A production-based approach," Journal of the Japanese and International Economies, Elsevier, vol. 31(C), pages 16-35.
    19. Holinski, Nils & Kool, Clemens J.M. & Muysken, Joan, 2012. "The impact of international portfolio composition on consumption risk sharing," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 31(6), pages 1715-1728.
    20. Holinski, N. & Kool, C.J.M. & Muysken, J., 2008. "Taking home bias seriously: absolute and relative measures explaining consumption risk-sharing," Research Memorandum 025, Maastricht University, Maastricht Research School of Economics of Technology and Organization (METEOR).

    More about this item

    Keywords

    consumption smoothing; government consumption; heterogeneity; panel VAR; risk sharing;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • E00 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - General - - - General
    • E21 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Consumption, Saving, Production, Employment, and Investment - - - Consumption; Saving; Wealth
    • F15 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Economic Integration

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:jrs:wpaper:201813. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: . General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/eejrcit.html .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: Peter Benczur (email available below). General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/eejrcit.html .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.