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Risk Sharing and Industrial Specialization: Regional and International Evidence

  • Sebnem Kalemli-Ozcan
  • Bent E. Sorensen
  • Oved Yosha

The authors provide empirical evidence that risk sharing enhances specialization in production. To the best of their knowledge, this well-established and important theoretical proposition has not been tested before. The empirical procedure is summarized as follows. First, the authors construct a measure of specialization in production, and calculate an index of specialization for each of the European Community (EC) and non-EC OECD countries, U.S. states, Canadian provinces, Japanese prefectures, Latin American countries, and regions of Italy, Spain, and the United Kingdom. Then, they estimate the degree of capital market integration (a measure of risk sharing) within each of these groups of regions: the EC countries, the non-EC OECD countries, the United States, Canada, Japan, Italy, Spain, and the United Kingdom (and rely on another author's estimate for Latin America). Finally, they perform a regression of the specialization index on the degree of risk sharing, controlling for relevant economic variables. They find a positive and significant relation between the degree of specialization of individual members of a group of countries, provinces, states, or prefectures, and the amount of risk that is shared within the group. The authors perform regressions using variables such as shareholder rights and the size of the financial sector (relative to GDP) as instruments for the amount of inter-regional risk sharing. These regressions confirm that risk sharing-facilitated by a favorable legal environment and a developed financial system-is a direct causal determinant of industrial specialization.

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Paper provided by Northwestern University/University of Chicago Joint Center for Poverty Research in its series JCPR Working Papers with number 86.

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Date of creation: 01 May 1999
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Handle: RePEc:wop:jopovw:86
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