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The impact of post-9/11 visa policies on travel to the United States

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  • Neiman, Brent
  • Swagel, Phillip

Abstract

This paper examines the impact of post-9/11 changes in visa and security policy on business and leisure travel to the United States. American businesses, tourism industry representatives, and politicians pointed to changes in visa policies as being responsible for a sharp decline in short-term visitors following the September 11 attacks. Several foreign governments likewise complained that visa requirements and other security measures were making it difficult for their citizens to travel to the United States. Using an empirical model which distinguishes the impact of visa policy from economic and country-specific factors, we find that changes in visa policy in the aftermath of 9/11 were not important contributors to the decrease in travel to the United States. Rather, the reduction in entries was largest among travelers who were not required to obtain a visa.

Suggested Citation

  • Neiman, Brent & Swagel, Phillip, 2007. "The impact of post-9/11 visa policies on travel to the United States," MPRA Paper 2952, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  • Handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:2952
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    File URL: https://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/2952/1/MPRA_paper_2952.pdf
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Head, Keith & Mayer, Thierry & Ries, John, 2009. "How remote is the offshoring threat?," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 53(4), pages 429-444, May.
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    3. J. M. C. Santos Silva & Silvana Tenreyro, 2006. "The Log of Gravity," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 88(4), pages 641-658, November.
    4. Marianne Bertrand & Esther Duflo & Sendhil Mullainathan, 2004. "How Much Should We Trust Differences-In-Differences Estimates?," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 119(1), pages 249-275.
    5. Head, Keith & Ries, John, 2008. "FDI as an outcome of the market for corporate control: Theory and evidence," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 74(1), pages 2-20, January.
    6. Jan Vilasuso & Fredric C. Menz, 1998. "Domestic Price, (Expected) Foreign Price, and Travel Spending by Canadians in the United States," Canadian Journal of Economics, Canadian Economics Association, vol. 31(5), pages 1139-1153, November.
    7. Pia M. Orrenius, 2003. "U.S. immigration and economic growth: putting policy on hold," Southwest Economy, Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas, issue Nov, pages 1-7.
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Robert Lawson & Jayme Lemke, 2012. "Travel visas," Public Choice, Springer, vol. 153(1), pages 17-36, October.
    2. Anca D. Cristea & Russell Hillberry & Aaditya Mattoo, 2015. "Open Skies over the Middle East," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 38(11), pages 1650-1681, November.
    3. repec:rss:jnljpg:v2i2p1 is not listed on IDEAS
    4. Farai Jena & Barry Reilly, 2013. "The determinants of United Kingdom student visa demand from developing countries," IZA Journal of Labor & Development, Springer;Forschungsinstitut zur Zukunft der Arbeit GmbH (IZA), vol. 2(1), pages 1-22, December.
    5. Tekleselassie, Tsegay Gebrekidan, 2016. "Three essays on the impact of institutions and policies on socio-economic outcomes," Economics PhD Theses 1316, Department of Economics, University of Sussex.
    6. Ayumu Tanaka, 2013. "Geographic Concentration of Foreign Visitors to Japan," Discussion papers e-12-013, Graduate School of Economics Project Center, Kyoto University.
    7. B. Lindsay Lowell, 2014. "Managing immigration: A review of some past projections," Migration Letters, Transnational Press London, UK, vol. 11(1), pages 33-42, January.
    8. Robert A. Lawson & Saurav Roychoudhury, 2016. "Do travel visa requirements impede tourist travel?," Journal of Economics and Finance, Springer;Academy of Economics and Finance, vol. 40(4), pages 817-828, October.
    9. repec:eee:touman:v:33:y:2012:i:2:p:397-412 is not listed on IDEAS

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Visa Policy; Differences-in-differences; Economics of National Security;

    JEL classification:

    • F52 - International Economics - - International Relations, National Security, and International Political Economy - - - National Security; Economic Nationalism
    • F2 - International Economics - - International Factor Movements and International Business

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