IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this article

Evaluation of the Immigration Reform and National Security after 9/11 in United State


  • Bahare Fallahi
  • Shahnaz Rahpaymaelizehee


The purpose of this review paper is to evaluate the immigration reform and national security after the September 11th events. The findings of this study show that immigration policy after September 11th had a major influence on Muslim immigrants particularly in the United States in 2001. The reasons of this outcome drive from the United States policies toward the immigration issue which mostly try to focus on national security of the United States and the war on terrorism that are the main doctrine of President Bush. As a result, the United States has considered some policies in order to limit any immigrants who might be as the threat toward the security of United States. Another finding of this paper is the behaviour of Anti-Muslim racism among American population which is increased significantly after the tragedy of September 11th in 2001 which has affected on the lives of millions of Muslims in this country. However, despites the actions of the immigration policies against Muslims after the Sept. 11 terrorist attacks did not stop and continue to expand.

Suggested Citation

  • Bahare Fallahi & Shahnaz Rahpaymaelizehee, 2015. "Evaluation of the Immigration Reform and National Security after 9/11 in United State," Journal of Public Policy & Governance, Research Academy of Social Sciences, vol. 2(2), pages 48-55.
  • Handle: RePEc:rss:jnljpg:v2i2p1

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    Download Restriction: no

    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Guillen, Pablo & Ji, Daniel, 2011. "Trust, discrimination and acculturation," Journal of Behavioral and Experimental Economics (formerly The Journal of Socio-Economics), Elsevier, vol. 40(5), pages 594-608.
    2. Neiman, Brent & Swagel, Phillip, 2009. "The impact of post-9/11 visa policies on travel to the United States," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 78(1), pages 86-99, June.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Song, Haiyan & Gartner, William C. & Tasci, Asli D.A., 2012. "Visa restrictions and their adverse economic and marketing implications – Evidence from China," Tourism Management, Elsevier, vol. 33(2), pages 397-412.
    2. Anca D. Cristea & Russell Hillberry & Aaditya Mattoo, 2015. "Open Skies over the Middle East," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 38(11), pages 1650-1681, November.
    3. Pala, Ali & Zhuang, Jun, 2018. "Security screening queues with impatient applicants: A new model with a case study," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 265(3), pages 919-930.
    4. Tekleselassie, Tsegay Gebrekidan, 2016. "Three essays on the impact of institutions and policies on socio-economic outcomes," Economics PhD Theses 1316, Department of Economics, University of Sussex Business School.
    5. Ayumu Tanaka, 2013. "Geographic Concentration of Foreign Visitors to Japan," Discussion papers e-12-013, Graduate School of Economics Project Center, Kyoto University.
    6. Volker Nitsch, 2019. "Passport, please! Travels, travails and trade," Applied Economics Letters, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 26(15), pages 1274-1278, September.
    7. B. Lindsay Lowell, 2014. "Managing immigration: A review of some past projections," Migration Letters, Transnational Press London, UK, vol. 11(1), pages 33-42, January.
    8. Robert A. Lawson & Saurav Roychoudhury, 2016. "Do travel visa requirements impede tourist travel?," Journal of Economics and Finance, Springer;Academy of Economics and Finance, vol. 40(4), pages 817-828, October.
    9. Lizhi Xu & Shouyang Wang & Jingjing Li & Ling Tang & Yanmin Shao, 2019. "Modelling international tourism flows to China: A panel data analysis with the gravity model," Tourism Economics, , vol. 25(7), pages 1047-1069, November.
    10. Tadao Hoshino, 2020. "A Pairwise Strategic Network Formation Model with Group Heterogeneity: With an Application to International Travel," Papers 2012.14886,, revised Feb 2021.
    11. Alan King, 2010. "The Effect Of 9/11 On Us Exports And Imports Of Tourism," Defence and Peace Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 21(5-6), pages 535-546.
    12. Farai Jena & Barry Reilly, 2013. "The determinants of United Kingdom student visa demand from developing countries," IZA Journal of Labor & Development, Springer;Forschungsinstitut zur Zukunft der Arbeit GmbH (IZA), vol. 2(1), pages 1-22, December.
    13. MORIKAWA Masayuki, 2018. "Effects of Distance and Borders on International and Interregional Tourist Flows: A micro-gravity analysis," Discussion papers 18021, Research Institute of Economy, Trade and Industry (RIETI).
    14. Barry Reilly & Tsegay Gebrekidan Tekleselassie, 2018. "The role of United States Visa Waiver Program on cross-border travel," Applied Economics Letters, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 25(1), pages 61-65, January.
    15. Robert Lawson & Jayme Lemke, 2012. "Travel visas," Public Choice, Springer, vol. 153(1), pages 17-36, October.


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:rss:jnljpg:v2i2p1. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: . General contact details of provider: .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: Danish Khalil (email available below). General contact details of provider: .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.