The impact of post-9/11 visa policies on travel to the United States
American and foreign businesses, politicians, and media have all pointed to post-9/11 changes in visa policies as being responsible for the sharp decline in travel to the United States following the attacks. Using an empirical model which distinguishes the impact of visa policy from economic and country-specific factors, we find that changes in visa policy were not important contributors to the decrease in travel to the United States. Rather, the reduction in entries was largest among travelers who were not required to obtain a visa.
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- Pia M. Orrenius, 2003. "U.S. immigration and economic growth: putting policy on hold," Southwest Economy, Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas, issue Nov, pages 1-7.
- Jan Vilasuso & Fredric C. Menz, 1998. "Domestic Price, (Expected) Foreign Price, and Travel Spending by Canadians in the United States," Canadian Journal of Economics, Canadian Economics Association, vol. 31(5), pages 1139-1153, November.
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