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The impact of post-9/11 visa policies on travel to the United States

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  • Neiman, Brent
  • Swagel, Phillip

Abstract

American and foreign businesses, politicians, and media have all pointed to post-9/11 changes in visa policies as being responsible for the sharp decline in travel to the United States following the attacks. Using an empirical model which distinguishes the impact of visa policy from economic and country-specific factors, we find that changes in visa policy were not important contributors to the decrease in travel to the United States. Rather, the reduction in entries was largest among travelers who were not required to obtain a visa.

Suggested Citation

  • Neiman, Brent & Swagel, Phillip, 2009. "The impact of post-9/11 visa policies on travel to the United States," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 78(1), pages 86-99, June.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:inecon:v:78:y:2009:i:1:p:86-99
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Head, Keith & Mayer, Thierry & Ries, John, 2009. "How remote is the offshoring threat?," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 53(4), pages 429-444, May.
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    3. J. M. C. Santos Silva & Silvana Tenreyro, 2006. "The Log of Gravity," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 88(4), pages 641-658, November.
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    5. Head, Keith & Ries, John, 2008. "FDI as an outcome of the market for corporate control: Theory and evidence," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 74(1), pages 2-20, January.
    6. Jan Vilasuso & Fredric C. Menz, 1998. "Domestic Price, (Expected) Foreign Price, and Travel Spending by Canadians in the United States," Canadian Journal of Economics, Canadian Economics Association, vol. 31(5), pages 1139-1153, November.
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Robert Lawson & Jayme Lemke, 2012. "Travel visas," Public Choice, Springer, vol. 153(1), pages 17-36, October.
    2. Anca D. Cristea & Russell Hillberry & Aaditya Mattoo, 2015. "Open Skies over the Middle East," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 38(11), pages 1650-1681, November.
    3. repec:rss:jnljpg:v2i2p1 is not listed on IDEAS
    4. Farai Jena & Barry Reilly, 2013. "The determinants of United Kingdom student visa demand from developing countries," IZA Journal of Labor & Development, Springer;Forschungsinstitut zur Zukunft der Arbeit GmbH (IZA), vol. 2(1), pages 1-22, December.
    5. Tekleselassie, Tsegay Gebrekidan, 2016. "Three essays on the impact of institutions and policies on socio-economic outcomes," Economics PhD Theses 1316, Department of Economics, University of Sussex.
    6. Ayumu Tanaka, 2013. "Geographic Concentration of Foreign Visitors to Japan," Discussion papers e-12-013, Graduate School of Economics Project Center, Kyoto University.
    7. B. Lindsay Lowell, 2014. "Managing immigration: A review of some past projections," Migration Letters, Transnational Press London, UK, vol. 11(1), pages 33-42, January.
    8. repec:eee:ejores:v:265:y:2018:i:3:p:919-930 is not listed on IDEAS
    9. Robert A. Lawson & Saurav Roychoudhury, 2016. "Do travel visa requirements impede tourist travel?," Journal of Economics and Finance, Springer;Academy of Economics and Finance, vol. 40(4), pages 817-828, October.
    10. MORIKAWA Masayuki, 2018. "Effects of Distance and Borders on International and Interregional Tourist Flows: A micro-gravity analysis," Discussion papers 18021, Research Institute of Economy, Trade and Industry (RIETI).
    11. repec:eee:touman:v:33:y:2012:i:2:p:397-412 is not listed on IDEAS

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Visa policy Differences-in-differences National security International business;

    JEL classification:

    • F52 - International Economics - - International Relations, National Security, and International Political Economy - - - National Security; Economic Nationalism
    • F2 - International Economics - - International Factor Movements and International Business

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