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Does biomass energy drive environmental sustainability? An SDG perspective for top five biomass consuming countries


  • Destek, Mehmet Akif
  • Sarkodie, Samuel Asumadu
  • Asamoah, Ernest Frimpong


Efficient use of biomass energy is integral to achieving many of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Their contributions, trade-off patterns, and implementation vary geographically, requiring in-depth analysis to sustainably manage its impact. Here, we analyzed the contribution of biomass energy intensity and efficiency on sustainable development across the top five biomass energy-consuming countries—Brazil, China, Germany, India, and the US. We compared the impact of biomass energy consumption, economic development, urbanization, and trade openness on carbon dioxide emissions and ecological footprint. Using annual frequency data from 1970 to 2016, we utilized continuously-updated fully-modified, and continuously-updated bias-corrected panel estimation techniques that allow controlling of cross-section dependence among sampled countries. Our empirical analysis shows income level escalates ecological footprint and emissions by 0.05-0.21%. Similarly, urban sprawl increases long-term emissions and ecological footprint by 0.07-0.17%. Biomass energy consumption increases ecological footprint by 0.18-0.90% but declines emissions by 0.02-0.09%. However, trade openness reduces both ecological footprint and CO2 emissions by 0.34-0.55%. Our results reveal that income level stimulates biomass consumption in early stages of growth, but declines in technologically oriented industrial-based economy, however, outgrows in service-inspired economy. This highlights that biomass extraction in developed countries can surpass regenerative capability, necessitating sustainable domestic material consumption management.

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  • Destek, Mehmet Akif & Sarkodie, Samuel Asumadu & Asamoah, Ernest Frimpong, 2020. "Does biomass energy drive environmental sustainability? An SDG perspective for top five biomass consuming countries," MPRA Paper 114218, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 29 Mar 2021.
  • Handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:114218

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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Wang, Chen & Raza, Syed Ali & Adebayo, Tomiwa Sunday & Yi, Sun & Shah, Muhammad Ibrahim, 2023. "The roles of hydro, nuclear and biomass energy towards carbon neutrality target in China: A policy-based analysis," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 262(PA).
    2. Yasmeen, Rizwana & Zhaohui, Cui & Hassan Shah, Wasi Ul & Kamal, Muhammad Abdul & Khan, Anwar, 2022. "Exploring the role of biomass energy consumption, ecological footprint through FDI and technological innovation in B&R economies: A simultaneous equation approach," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 244(PA).
    3. Liu, Zhen & Saydaliev, Hayot Berk & Lan, Jing & Ali, Sajid & Anser, Muhammad Khalid, 2022. "Assessing the effectiveness of biomass energy in mitigating CO2 emissions: Evidence from Top-10 biomass energy consumer countries," Renewable Energy, Elsevier, vol. 191(C), pages 842-851.
    4. Li, Xueqin & Liu, Peng & Lei, Tingzhou & Wu, Youqing & Chen, Wenxuan & Wang, Zhiwei & Shi, Jie & Wu, Shiyong & Li, Yanling & Huang, Sheng, 2022. "Pyrolysis of biomass Tar model compound with various Ni-based catalysts: Influence of promoters characteristics on hydrogen-rich gas formation," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 244(PB).
    5. Welfle, Andrew & Röder, Mirjam, 2022. "Mapping the sustainability of bioenergy to maximise benefits, mitigate risks and drive progress toward the Sustainable Development Goals," Renewable Energy, Elsevier, vol. 191(C), pages 493-509.
    6. Apip Amrullah & Obie Farobie & Asep Bayu & Novi Syaftika & Edy Hartulistiyoso & Navid R. Moheimani & Surachai Karnjanakom & Yukihiko Matsumura, 2022. "Slow Pyrolysis of Ulva lactuca (Chlorophyta) for Sustainable Production of Bio-Oil and Biochar," Sustainability, MDPI, vol. 14(6), pages 1-14, March.

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    More about this item


    Biomass energy; domestic material consumption; economic growth; trade openness; urbanization;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • Q43 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Energy - - - Energy and the Macroeconomy
    • Q57 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Environmental Economics - - - Ecological Economics


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