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Deindustrialization, Reindustrialization and Environmental Degradation: Evidence from Ecological Footprint of Turkey


  • Destek, Mehmet Akif


As in most developing countries, Turkey has witnessed the deindustrialization process in 1990s. However, unlike the others, the reindustrialization experience has started in the country since 2002. Despite the existence of some arguments about the environmental impact of such structural changes, they are mostly ignored by empirical studies. For this purpose, the main purpose of this study is to examine the impact of structural changes on environmental degradation in Turkey for the period from 1970 to 2017. In addition, the impact of real income, urbanization and human capital on environmental degradation is also observed. In doing so, the study employs the NARDL approach to clearly obtain the impact of industrialization with both positive and negative shocks. Moreover, both CO2 emission and ecological footprint are used as the indicator of environmental degradation to compare the environmental impact of structural transformation on different degradation indicators. The findings show that deindustrialization results in reduced carbon emissions, but with no significant impact on ecological footprint. Furthermore, we discovered that while both industrialization and reindustrialization lead to lower environmental quality, reindustrialization holds the potential to be less harmful to the environment because of advancements in technology.

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  • Destek, Mehmet Akif, 2020. "Deindustrialization, Reindustrialization and Environmental Degradation: Evidence from Ecological Footprint of Turkey," MPRA Paper 114149, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 01 Mar 2021.
  • Handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:114149

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    References listed on IDEAS

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    3. Adebayo, Tomiwa Sunday & Onifade, Stephen Taiwo & Alola, Andrew Adewale & Muoneke, Obumneke Bob, 2022. "Does it take international integration of natural resources to ascend the ladder of environmental quality in the newly industrialized countries?," Resources Policy, Elsevier, vol. 76(C).

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    More about this item


    Deindustrialization; Reindustrialization; CO2 emission; Ecological footprint; NARDL; Turkey;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • Q56 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Environmental Economics - - - Environment and Development; Environment and Trade; Sustainability; Environmental Accounts and Accounting; Environmental Equity; Population Growth
    • Q57 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Environmental Economics - - - Ecological Economics
    • Q58 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Environmental Economics - - - Environmental Economics: Government Policy


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