Divergent competitiveness in the eurozone and the optimum currency area theory
As the euro is on its second decade, the European sovereign debt crisis and the ever more evident disparities in competitiveness among member states are prompting many to question whether monetary union is bringing more benefits than costs. The optimum currency area (OCA) theory provides a framework with several criteria for such analysis. Most literature focuses either or on OCA individual criteria or on an aggregate analysis of these criteria, using meta-properties. Differently, we start by a descriptive analysis of the first twelve euro countries under six criteria between 1999 and 2009. We detect signs of labour geographic mobility. However, nominal wages growth largely outpaced productivity growth in some periphery countries, resulting in losses of competitiveness. Financial markets seem to be deeply integrated. Total intra-EMU trade increased, though core countries seem to have benefited more, as their relative competitiveness improved. We detect no increased homogeneity of exports structures of EMU countries. Inflation rates alternated between periods of convergence and of divergence, though prices levels consistently converged between EMU countries. Finally, budgetary indiscipline was frequent preventing several countries from having fiscal room to face asymmetrical shocks.We conclude by estimating the impact of five OCA criteria on countries’ relative competitiveness, using real effective exchange rates as a proxy. Differences in the growth of unit labour costs, the dissimilarity of trade and the differences in output growth were found to be significant. With a higher confidence level, bilateral trade is significant and points towards the specialization paradigm. Thus, we identify some causes of the divergent competitiveness between some EMU countries that contributed to weaker economic growth in parts of the euro area.
|Date of creation:||Nov 2011|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: Rua Dr. Roberto Frias, 4200 PORTO|
Web page: http://www.fep.up.pt/
More information through EDIRC
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Dellas, Harris & Tavlas, George S., 2009.
"An optimum-currency-area odyssey,"
Journal of International Money and Finance,
Elsevier, vol. 28(7), pages 1117-1137, November.
- Harris Dellas & George S.Tavlas, 2009. "An Optimum-Currency-Area Odyssey," Working Papers 102, Bank of Greece.
- Dellas, Harris & Tavlas, George, 2010. "An Optimum Currency Area Odyssey," CEPR Discussion Papers 7645, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Alfonso Arpaia & Karl Pichelmann, 2007. "Nominal and real wage flexibility in EMU," International Economics and Economic Policy, Springer, vol. 4(3), pages 299-328, November.
- Alfonso Arpaia & Karl Pichelmann, 2007. "Nominal and real wage flexibility in EMU," European Economy - Economic Papers 2008 - 2015 281, Directorate General Economic and Financial Affairs (DG ECFIN), European Commission.
- Arpaia, Alfonso & Pichelmann, Karl, 2007. "Nominal and real wage flexibility in EMU," MPRA Paper 4364, University Library of Munich, Germany.
- Michael G. Arghyrou & Georgios Chortareas, 2008. "Current Account Imbalances and Real Exchange Rates in the Euro Area," Review of International Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 16(4), pages 747-764, 09.
- Arghyrou, Michael G & Chortareas, Georgios, 2006. "Current Account Imbalances and Real Exchange Rates in the Euro Area," Cardiff Economics Working Papers E2006/23, Cardiff University, Cardiff Business School, Economics Section.
- Holger Zemanek, 2010. "Competitiveness Within The Euro Area: The Problem That Still Needs To Be Solved," Economic Affairs, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 30(3), pages 42-47, October.
- Berger, Helge & Nitsch, Volker, 2008. "Zooming out: The trade effect of the euro in historical perspective," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 27(8), pages 1244-1260, December.
- Helge Berger & Volker Nitsch, 2005. "Zooming Out: The Trade Effect of the Euro in Historical Perspective," CESifo Working Paper Series 1435, CESifo Group Munich.
- Berger, Helge & Nitsch, Volker, 2005. "Zooming Out: The Trade Effect of the EURO in Historical Perspective," Discussion Papers 2005/5, Free University Berlin, School of Business & Economics.
- Alberola, Enrique & Tyrväinen, Timo, 1998. "Is there scope for inflation differentials in EMU : An empirical evaluation of the Balassa-Samuelsson model in EMU countries," Research Discussion Papers 15/1998, Bank of Finland.
- Enrique Alberola-Ila & Tymo Tyrväinen, 1998. "Is there Scope for Inflation Differentials in EMU? An Empirical Evaluation of the Balassa-Samuelson Model in EMU Countries," Working Papers 9823, Banco de España;Working Papers Homepage.
- Koedijk, Kees G. & Tims, Ben & van Dijk, Mathijs A., 2004. "Purchasing power parity and the euro area," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 23(7-8), pages 1081-1107.
- Koedijk, Kees & Tims, Ben & Van Dijk, Mathijs A, 2004. "Purchasing Power Parity and the Euro Area," CEPR Discussion Papers 4510, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Koedijk, C.G. & Tims, B. & van Dijk, M.A., 2004. "Purchasing Power Parity and the Euro Area," ERIM Report Series Research in Management ERS-2004-025-F&A, Erasmus Research Institute of Management (ERIM), ERIM is the joint research institute of the Rotterdam School of Management, Erasmus University and the Erasmus School of Economics (ESE) at Erasmus University Rotterdam.
- Claude Lopez & David H. Papell, 2007. "Convergence to Purchasing Power Parity at the Commencement of the Euro," Review of International Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 15(1), pages 1-16, 02.
- Claude Lopez & David H. Papell, 2003. "Convergence to Purchasing Power Parity at the Commencement of the Euro," Macroeconomics 0310008, EconWPA.
- Claude Lopez & David H. Papell, 2003. "Convergence to Purchasing Power Parity at the Commencement of the Euro," University of Cincinnati, Economics Working Papers Series 2003-08, University of Cincinnati, Department of Economics.
- Holger Zemanek & Ansgar Belke & Gunther Schnabl, 2010. "Current account balances and structural adjustment in the euro area," International Economics and Economic Policy, Springer, vol. 7(1), pages 83-127, May.
- Zemanek, Holger & Belke, Ansgar & Schnabl, Gunther, 2010. "Current Account Balances and Structural Adjustment in the Euro Area," Ruhr Economic Papers 176, RWI - Leibniz-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung, Ruhr-University Bochum, TU Dortmund University, University of Duisburg-Essen.
- Thomas D. Willett & Orawan Permpoon & Clas Wihlborg, 2010. "Endogenous OCA Analysis and the Early Euro Experience," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 33(7), pages 851-872, 07.
- Marcel Fratzscher & Livio Stracca, 2009. "The political economy under monetary union: has the euro made a difference?," Economic Policy, CEPR;CES;MSH, vol. 24, pages 307-348, 04.
- Fratzscher, Marcel & Stracca, Livio, 2008. "The political economy under monetary union: has the euro made a difference?," Working Paper Series 0956, European Central Bank.
- Klaus Weyerstrass & Bas Aarle & Marcus Kappler & Atilim Seymen, 2011. "Business Cycle Synchronisation with(in) the Euro Area: in Search of a ‘Euro Effect’," Open Economies Review, Springer, vol. 22(3), pages 427-446, July.
- Alberto Alesina & Robert J. Barro & Silvana Tenreyro, 2003. "Optimal Currency Areas," NBER Chapters,in: NBER Macroeconomics Annual 2002, Volume 17, pages 301-356 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Alberto Alesina & Robert Barro & Silvana Tenreyro, 2002. "Optimal Currency Areas," Harvard Institute of Economic Research Working Papers 1958, Harvard - Institute of Economic Research.
- Alberto Alesina & Robert J. Barro & Silvana Tenreyro, 2002. "Optimal Currency Areas," NBER Working Papers 9072, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Tenreyro, Silvana & Barro, Robert & Alesina, Alberto, 2002. "Optimal Currency Areas," Scholarly Articles 4553033, Harvard University Department of Economics.
- Hein, Eckhard & Truger, Achim, 2005. "European Monetary Union: nominal convergence, real divergence and slow growth?," Structural Change and Economic Dynamics, Elsevier, vol. 16(1), pages 7-33, March.
- Campolmi, Alessia & Faia, Ester, 2011. "Labor market institutions and inflation volatility in the euro area," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 35(5), pages 793-812, May.
- Alessia Campolmi & Ester Faia, 2011. "Labor market institutions and inflation volatility in the euro area," Post-Print hal-00796300, HAL.
- Emerson, Michael & Gros, Daniel & Italianer, Alexander & ,, 1992. "One Market, One Money: An Evaluation of the Potential Benefits and Costs of Forming an Economic and Monetary Union," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, number 9780198773245, April.
- George Tavlas, 1994. "The theory of monetary integration," Open Economies Review, Springer, vol. 5(2), pages 211-230, March.
- Wyplosz, Charles (ed.), 2001. "The Impact of EMU on Europe and the Developing Countries," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, number 9780199245314, April.
- Francesco Paolo Mongelli, 2005. "What is European Economic and Monetary Union Telling us About the Properties of Optimum Currency Areas?," Journal of Common Market Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 43(3), pages 607-635, 09.
- Alberto Alesina & Francesco Giavazzi, 2010. "Introduction to "Europe and the Euro"," NBER Chapters,in: Europe and the Euro, pages 1-9 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Romain Duval & Jørgen Elmeskov & Lukas Vogel, 2007. "Structural Policies and Economic Resilience to Shocks," OECD Economics Department Working Papers 567, OECD Publishing. Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:por:fepwps:436. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: ()
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.