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Water price and water reallocation in Andalusia. A computable general equilibrium approach


  • Esther Velázquez

    () (Department of Economics, Universidad Pablo de Olavide)

  • M. Alejandro Cardenete

    () (Department of Economics, Universidad Pablo de Olavide)

  • Geoffrey J.D. Hewings

    () (Regional Economics Application Laboratory and University of Illinois)


The objective of this work is to analyze the effects that an increase in the price of the water delivered to the agriculture sector to promote the conservation of this resource would have on the efficiency of the consumption of water and the possible reallocation of water to the remaining productive sectors. The analysis is motivated by the fact that the agriculture consumes a disproportionately large amount of water at very low prices. The methodology that will be used to explore the implications on the economy will be a computable general equilibrium model (CGE), previously designed for an analysis of the direct taxes of the Andalusian economy (Cardenete and Sancho, 2003), but now enhanced and extended to include emissions of pollutants and the introduction of environmental taxes (André, Cardenete and Velázquez, 2005). This model has been further modified to introduce the variations in the water price that we will try to analyze by means of a tariff applied on the production structure. The main conclusion drawn indicates that, although the tax policy applied does not correspond to a significant water saving in the above-mentioned sector, a reallocation of this resource is achieved which seems to generate a more efficient and more rational behavior from a production point of view.

Suggested Citation

  • Esther Velázquez & M. Alejandro Cardenete & Geoffrey J.D. Hewings, 2007. "Water price and water reallocation in Andalusia. A computable general equilibrium approach," Working Papers 07.04, Universidad Pablo de Olavide, Department of Economics.
  • Handle: RePEc:pab:wpaper:07.04

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Decaluwe, B. & Patry, A. & Savard, L., 1999. "`When Water Is No Longer Heaven Sent: Comparative Pricing Analysis in an AGE Model," Papers 9905, Laval - Recherche en Politique Economique.
    2. Doppler, Werner & Salman, Amer Z. & Al-Karablieh, Emad K. & Wolff, Heinz-Peter, 2002. "The impact of water price strategies on the allocation of irrigation water: the case of the Jordan Valley," Agricultural Water Management, Elsevier, vol. 55(3), pages 171-182, June.
    3. Erik Dietzenbacher & Esther Velazquez, 2007. "Analysing Andalusian Virtual Water Trade in an Input-Output Framework," Regional Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 41(2), pages 185-196.
    4. Berbel, J. & Gomez-Limon, J. A., 2000. "The impact of water-pricing policy in Spain: an analysis of three irrigated areas," Agricultural Water Management, Elsevier, vol. 43(2), pages 219-238, March.
    5. Seung, Chang K. & Englin, Jeffrey E. & Harris, Thomas R., 1997. "Application of Computable General Equilibrium Model to Derive Impacts of Surface Water Reallocation Policy," 1997 Annual Meeting, July 13-16, 1997, Reno\Sparks, Nevada 35841, Western Agricultural Economics Association.
    6. Hewings, Geoffrey J.D. & Dridi, Chokri & Guilhoto, Joaquim J.M., 2005. "Impacts of reallocation of resource constraints on the northeast economy of Brazil," MPRA Paper 38210, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    7. Francisco André & M. Cardenete & Esther Velázquez, 2005. "Performing an environmental tax reform in a regional economy. A computable general equilibrium approach," The Annals of Regional Science, Springer;Western Regional Science Association, vol. 39(2), pages 375-392, June.
    8. Duarte, Rosa & Sanchez-Choliz, Julio & Bielsa, Jorge, 2002. "Water use in the Spanish economy: an input-output approach," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 43(1), pages 71-85, November.
    9. repec:wsi:wschap:9789812707116_0004 is not listed on IDEAS
    10. Dawkins, Christina & Srinivasan, T.N. & Whalley, John, 2001. "Calibration," Handbook of Econometrics,in: J.J. Heckman & E.E. Leamer (ed.), Handbook of Econometrics, edition 1, volume 5, chapter 58, pages 3653-3703 Elsevier.
    11. Dixon, Peter B., 1990. "A general equilibrium approach to public utility pricing: determining prices for a water authority," Journal of Policy Modeling, Elsevier, vol. 12(4), pages 745-767.
    12. Noelwah R. Netusil & Thomas R. Harris & Chang K. Seung & Jeffrey E. Englin, 2000. "Impacts of water reallocation: A combined computable general equilibrium and recreation demand model approach," The Annals of Regional Science, Springer;Western Regional Science Association, vol. 34(4), pages 473-487.
    13. Dinar, A. & Subramanian, A., 1997. "Water Pricing Experiences," Papers 386, World Bank - Technical Papers.
    14. Manuel Alejandro Cardenete & Ferran Sancho, 2006. "An Applied General Equilibrium Model to Assess the Impact of National Tax Changes on a Regional Economy," World Scientific Book Chapters,in: Computable General Equilibrium Approaches In Urban And Regional Policy Studies, chapter 4, pages 41-55 World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd..
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    Cited by:

    1. Dinar, Ariel, 2012. "Economy-wide implications of direct and indirect policy interventions in the water sector: lessons from recent work and future research needs," Policy Research Working Paper Series 6068, The World Bank.
    2. Cámara Sánchez, Ángeles & Cardenete Flores, M.Alejandro & Monrobel Alcántara, José Ramón, 2014. "Matrices de Contabilidad Social y Modelos de Equilibrio General Aplicado elaborados en España a nivel regional/Social Accounting Matrices and Applied General Equilibrium Models Developed in Spain at R," Estudios de Economía Aplicada, Estudios de Economía Aplicada, vol. 32, pages 427-454, Enero.
    3. Rashid Hassan & James Thurlow, 2011. "Macro–micro feedback links of water management in South Africa: CGE analyses of selected policy regimes," Agricultural Economics, International Association of Agricultural Economists, vol. 42(2), pages 235-247, March.
    4. Na Li & Xiaojun Wang & Minjun Shi & Hong Yang, 2015. "Economic Impacts of Total Water Use Control in the Heihe River Basin in Northwestern China—An Integrated CGE-BEM Modeling Approach," Sustainability, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 7(3), pages 1-19, March.
    5. Cakmak, Erol H. & Dudu, Hasan & Saracoglu, Sirin & Diao, Xinshen & Roe, Terry & Tsur, Yacov, 2008. "Macro-Micro Feedback Links Of Irrigation Water Management In Turkey," Policy Research Working Paper Series 4781, The World Bank.
    6. repec:kap:enreec:v:69:y:2018:i:1:d:10.1007_s10640-016-0066-7 is not listed on IDEAS

    More about this item


    environmental tax reforms; computable general equilibrium; water price;

    JEL classification:

    • D58 - Microeconomics - - General Equilibrium and Disequilibrium - - - Computable and Other Applied General Equilibrium Models
    • H21 - Public Economics - - Taxation, Subsidies, and Revenue - - - Efficiency; Optimal Taxation
    • H22 - Public Economics - - Taxation, Subsidies, and Revenue - - - Incidence

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