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Child Labor, Urban Proximity, and Household Composition

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  • Marcel Fafchamps
  • Jackline Wahba

Abstract

Using detailed survey data from Nepal, this paper examines the determinants of child labor with a special emphasis on urban proximity. We find that children residing in or near urban centers attend school more and work less in total but are more likely to be involved in wage work or in a small business. The larger the urban center, the stronger the effect is. Urban proximity is found to reduce the workload of children and improve school attendance up to 3 hours of travel time from the city. In areas of commercialized agriculture located 5 to 8 hours from the city, children do more farm work. Children unrelated or loosely related to the household head work more, especially in market work and household chores, and are less likely to attend school. This is especially true of child servants, a small group who appear particularly at risk.

Suggested Citation

  • Marcel Fafchamps & Jackline Wahba, 2004. "Child Labor, Urban Proximity, and Household Composition," Economics Series Working Papers 213, University of Oxford, Department of Economics.
  • Handle: RePEc:oxf:wpaper:213
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    References listed on IDEAS

    as
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    Cited by:

    1. Yamauchi, Futoshi & Muto, Megumi & Chowdhury, Shyamal K. & Dewina, Reno & Sumaryanto, Sony, 2009. "Spatial Networks, Labor Supply and Income Dynamics: Evidence from Indonesian Villages," 2009 Conference, August 16-22, 2009, Beijing, China 51571, International Association of Agricultural Economists.
    2. Ian Coxhead & Rashesh Shrestha, 2017. "Globalization and School–Work Choices in an Emerging Economy: Vietnam," Asian Economic Papers, MIT Press, vol. 16(2), pages 28-45, Summer.
    3. Akresh, Richard, 2004. "Adjusting Household Structure: School Enrollment Impacts of Child Fostering in Burkina Faso," IZA Discussion Papers 1379, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    4. Florence Kondylis & Marco Manacorda, 2012. "School Proximity and Child Labor: Evidence from Rural Tanzania," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 47(1), pages 32-63.
    5. John Gibson & David McKenzie, 2007. "Using the Global Positioning System (GPS) in Household Surveys For Better Economics and Better Policy," Working Papers in Economics 07/04, University of Waikato.
    6. Pedrosa, Jose & Do, Quy-Toan, 2008. "How does geographic distance affect credit market access in Niger ?," Policy Research Working Paper Series 4772, The World Bank.
    7. Fafchamps, Marcel, 2012. "Reprint of development, agglomeration, and the organization of work," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 42(5), pages 765-778.
    8. Richard Akresh, 2005. "Risk, Network Quality, and Family Structure: Child Fostering Decisions in Burkina Faso," Working Papers 902, Economic Growth Center, Yale University.
    9. Eric V. Edmonds & Norbert Schady, 2012. "Poverty Alleviation and Child Labor," American Economic Journal: Economic Policy, American Economic Association, vol. 4(4), pages 100-124, November.
    10. Vinish Shrestha & Rashesh Shrestha, 2017. "Intergenerational Effect of Education Reform Program and Maternal Education on Children's Educational and Labor Outcomes: Evidence from Nepal," Working Papers 2017-03, Towson University, Department of Economics, revised May 2017.
    11. Marcel Fafchamps & Forhad Shilpi, 2014. "Education and Household Welfare," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 63(1), pages 73-115.
    12. Yamauchi, Futoshi & Muto, Megumi & Chowdhury, Shyamal & Dewina, Reno & Sumaryanto, Sony, 2010. "Are Schooling and Roads Complementary? Evidence from Rural Indonesia," Working Papers 10, JICA Research Institute.
    13. Legrand Yémélé Kana & Sylvain Dessy & Jacques Ewoudou, 2010. "Are Foster Children Made Better Off by Informal Fostering Arrangements?," Cahiers de recherche 1009, CIRPEE.
    14. Vinish Shrestha & Rashesh Shrestha, 2017. "Intergenerational effect of education reform program and maternal education on children's educational and labor outcomes: evidence from Nepal," Departmental Working Papers 2017-07, The Australian National University, Arndt-Corden Department of Economics.
    15. Fafchamps, Marcel, 2012. "Development, agglomeration, and the organization of work," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 42(3), pages 459-472.
    16. Gibson, John & McKenzie, David, 2007. "Using the global positioning system in household surveys for better economics and better policy," Policy Research Working Paper Series 4195, The World Bank.
    17. Koolwal, Gayatri B., 2007. "Son Preference and Child Labor in Nepal: The Household Impact of Sending Girls to Work," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 35(5), pages 881-903, May.
    18. Vinish Shrestha & Rashesh Shrestha, 2017. "Intergenerational effect of education reform: mother's education and children's human capital in Nepal," Working Papers 2017-05, Towson University, Department of Economics, revised Oct 2017.
    19. Yamauchi, Futoshi & Muto, Megumi & Chowdhury, Shyamal & Dewina, Reno & Sumaryanto, Sony, 2011. "Are Schooling and Roads Complementary? Evidence from Income Dynamics in Rural Indonesia," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 39(12), pages 2232-2244.
    20. Ragui Assaad & Deborah Levison & Nadia Zibani, 2010. "The Effect of Domestic Work on Girls' Schooling: Evidence from Egypt," Feminist Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 16(1), pages 79-128.
    21. Marcel Fafchamps & Agnes R. Quisumbing, 2006. "Household Formation and Marriage Markets," Economics Series Working Papers GPRG-WPS-039, University of Oxford, Department of Economics.
    22. Huisman, Janine & Smits, Jeroen, 2009. "Effects of Household- and District-Level Factors on Primary School Enrollment in 30 Developing Countries," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 37(1), pages 179-193, January.
    23. repec:zbw:espost:173233 is not listed on IDEAS
    24. Chamberlin, Jordan & Jayne, T.S., 2013. "Unpacking the Meaning of ‘Market Access’: Evidence from Rural Kenya," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 41(C), pages 245-264.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Child Labor; Geographical Isolation; Altruism; Education;

    JEL classification:

    • J13 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Fertility; Family Planning; Child Care; Children; Youth
    • O15 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Economic Development: Human Resources; Human Development; Income Distribution; Migration
    • O18 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Urban, Rural, Regional, and Transportation Analysis; Housing; Infrastructure

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