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Cinderella Goes to School: The Effects of Child Fostering on School Enrollment in South Africa

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  • Frederick J. Zimmerman

Abstract

Fostering is a common institution throughout developing countries, where up to 25 percent of children are fostered. An analysis of 8,627 Black South African children suggests that foster children are not less likely than others to attend school, and they tend to move from homes that have difficulty enrolling them in school to homes that are more apt to do so. The net impact of fostering on these children is to reduce the risk of not attending school by up to 22 percent. Fostering therefore provides an important means of improving human-capital investment. Evidence that households foster-in children primarily for their domestic labor is limited.

Suggested Citation

  • Frederick J. Zimmerman, 2003. "Cinderella Goes to School: The Effects of Child Fostering on School Enrollment in South Africa," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 38(3).
  • Handle: RePEc:uwp:jhriss:v:38:y:2003:i:3:p557-590
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    Cited by:

    1. David K. Evans & Arkadipta Ghosh, 2008. "Prioritizing Educational Investments in Children in the Developing World," Working Papers WR-587, RAND Corporation.
    2. Mather, David, 2011. "Poverty, AIDS, Orphanhood, Gender, and Child Schooling in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Review of the Evidence," Food Security International Development Working Papers 119319, Michigan State University, Department of Agricultural, Food, and Resource Economics.
    3. Beegle, Kathleen & Filmer, Deon & Stokes, Andrew & Tiererova, Lucia, 2010. "Orphanhood and the Living Arrangements of Children in Sub-Saharan Africa," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 38(12), pages 1727-1746, December.
    4. Orazem, Peter F. & King, Elizabeth M., 2008. "Schooling in Developing Countries: The Roles of Supply, Demand and Government Policy," Handbook of Development Economics, in: T. Paul Schultz & John A. Strauss (ed.),Handbook of Development Economics, edition 1, volume 4, chapter 55, pages 3475-3559, Elsevier.
    5. Mussa, Richard, 2009. "Household economic status, schooling costs, and schooling bias against non-biological children in Malawi," MPRA Paper 15855, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 21 Jun 2009.
    6. Claus Pörtner, 2016. "Effects of parental absence on child labor and school attendance in the Philippines," Review of Economics of the Household, Springer, vol. 14(1), pages 103-130, March.
    7. Jorge M. Agüero & Maithili Ramachandran, 2020. "The Intergenerational Transmission of Schooling among the Education-Rationed," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 55(2), pages 504-538.
    8. Sophie Hedges & Rebecca Sear & Jim Todd & Mark Urassa & David W. Lawson, 2019. "Earning their keep? Fostering, children's education, and work in north-western Tanzania," Demographic Research, Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany, vol. 41(10), pages 263-292.
    9. Serra, Renata, 2009. "Child fostering in Africa: When labor and schooling motives may coexist," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 88(1), pages 157-170, January.
    10. Hamoudi, Amar & Thomas, Duncan, 2014. "Endogenous coresidence and program incidence: South Africa's Old Age Pension," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 109(C), pages 30-37.
    11. Yamauchi, Futoshi, 2004. "Race, equity, and public schools in post-apartheid South Africa," FCND discussion papers 182, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
    12. Cyprian Misinde, 2019. "Child Living Conditions and Orphanhood Status in Uganda: an Extension of the Application of the Intrinsic Value Approach to Child Poverty Measurement," Child Indicators Research, Springer;The International Society of Child Indicators (ISCI), vol. 12(1), pages 277-298, February.
    13. Amar Hamoudi & Duncan Thomas, 2014. "Endogenous Co-residence and Program Incidence: South Africa's Old Age Pension," NBER Working Papers 19929, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    14. Leandro DE MAGALHÃES & Dongya KOH & Räul SANTAEULILA-LLOPIS, 2019. "The Cost of Consumption Smoothing: Less Schooling and less Nutrition," JODE - Journal of Demographic Economics, Cambridge University Press, vol. 85(3), pages 181-208, September.
    15. El Badaoui, Eliane & Mangiavacchi, Lucia, 2018. "Fostering, Child Welfare, and Ethnic Cultural Values," IZA Discussion Papers 11691, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    16. Yamauchi, Futoshi, 2005. "Race, equity, and public schools in post-Apartheid South Africa: Equal opportunity for all kids," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 24(2), pages 213-233, April.
    17. Richard Akresh & Eric V. Edmonds, 2011. "Residential Rivalry and Constraints on the Availability of Child Labor," NBER Working Papers 17165, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    18. Fafchamps, Marcel & Wahba, Jackline, 2006. "Child labor, urban proximity, and household composition," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 79(2), pages 374-397, April.
    19. Ariyo, Esther & Mortelmans, Dimitri & Wouters, Edwin, 2019. "The African child in kinship care: A systematic review," Children and Youth Services Review, Elsevier, vol. 98(C), pages 178-187.
    20. Eric V. Edmonds & Maheshwor Shrestha, 2013. "Independent child labor migrants," Chapters, in: Amelie F. Constant & Klaus F. Zimmermann (ed.),International Handbook on the Economics of Migration, chapter 5, pages 98-120, Edward Elgar Publishing.

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