Social Roles, Human Capital, and the Intrahousehold Division of Labour: Evidence from Pakistan
Using detailed data from rural Pakistan, this paper investigates whether human capital, learning by doing, gender, and one`s status within the family - heretoforth family status - affect the division of labor within households. Results suggest the presence of returns to individual specialization in all farm, non-farm, and home based activities. The intrahousehold division of labor is influenced by comparative advantage based on human capital and by long-lasting returns to learning by doing, but we also find evidence of a separate effect of gender and family status. Households seem to operate as hierarchies with sexually segregated spheres of activity. The head of household and his or her spouse provide most of the labor within their respective spheres of influence; other members work less. When present in the household, daughters-in-law work systematically harder than daughters of comparable age, build, and education. Other findings of interest are that there are increasing returns to scale in most household chores, that larger households work more off farm, and that better educated individuals enjoy more leisure.
|Date of creation:||01 Jul 2000|
|Date of revision:|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: Manor Rd. Building, Oxford, OX1 3UQ|
Web page: http://www.economics.ox.ac.uk/
More information through EDIRC
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Chiappori, Pierre-Andre, 1997.
"Introducing Household Production in Collective Models of Labor Supply,"
Journal of Political Economy,
University of Chicago Press, vol. 105(1), pages 191-209, February.
- Chiappori, P.A., 1994. "Introducing Household Production in Collective Models of Labour Suply," DELTA Working Papers 94-18, DELTA (Ecole normale supérieure).
- Alderman, Harold, et al, 1996.
"The Returns to Endogenous Human Capital in Pakistan's Rural Wage Labour Market,"
Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics,
Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 58(1), pages 29-55, February.
- Behrman, J.R. & Ross, D. & Sabot, R. & Alderman, H., 1995. "The Returns to endogenous Human Capital in Pakistan's Rural Wage Labour Market," Center for Development Economics 141, Department of Economics, Williams College.
- Powell, James L., 1984. "Least absolute deviations estimation for the censored regression model," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 25(3), pages 303-325, July.
- Khandker, Shahidur R, 1987. "Labor Market Participation of Married Women in Bangladesh," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 69(3), pages 536-41, August.
- James J. Heckman, 1974.
"Effects of Child-Care Programs on Women's Work Effort,"
in: Marriage, Family, Human Capital, and Fertility, pages 136-169
National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Heckman, James J, 1974. "Effects of Child-Care Programs on Women's Work Effort," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 82(2), pages S136-S163, Part II, .
- Alderman, Harold, et al, 1995. "Unitary versus Collective Models of the Household: Is It Time to Shift the Burden of Proof?," World Bank Research Observer, World Bank Group, vol. 10(1), pages 1-19, February.
- Katz, Elizabeth G., 1995. "Gender and trade within the household: Observations from rural guatemala," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 23(2), pages 327-342, February.
- Gronau, Reuben, 1980. "Home Production-A Forgotten Industry," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 62(3), pages 408-16, August.
- Alderman, Harold & Garcia, Marito, 1993. "Poverty, household food security, and nutrition in rural Pakistan:," Research reports 96, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
- Paul Glewwe & Hanan Jacoby, 1994. "Student Achievement and Schooling Choice in Low-Income Countries: Evidence from Ghana," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 29(3), pages 843-864.
- Lundberg, S. & Pollak, R.A., 1991.
"Separate Spheres Bargaining and the Marriage Market,"
Discussion Papers in Economics at the University of Washington
91-08, Department of Economics at the University of Washington.
- Lundberg, Shelly & Pollak, Robert A, 1993. "Separate Spheres Bargaining and the Marriage Market," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 101(6), pages 988-1010, December.
- Lundberg, S. & Pollak, R.A., 1991. "Separate Spheres Bargaining and the Marriage Market," Working Papers 91-08, University of Washington, Department of Economics.
- Honore, Bo E. & Powell, James L., 1994. "Pairwise difference estimators of censored and truncated regression models," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 64(1-2), pages 241-278.
- Apps, P.F. & Rees, R., 1996.
"Collective Labor Supply and Household Production,"
301, Australian National University - Department of Economics.
- de Janvry, Alain & Fafchamps, Marcel & Sadoulet, Elisabeth, 1991. "Peasant Household Behaviour with Missing Markets: Some Paradoxes Explained," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 101(409), pages 1400-417, November.
- Nargis Sultana & Hina Nazli & Sohail J. Malik, 1994. "Determinants of Female Time Allocation in Selected Districts of Rural Pakistan," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 33(4), pages 1141-1153.
- Chiappori, Pierre-André & Fortin, Bernard & Lacroix, Guy, 1998. "Household Labor Supply, Sharing Rule and the Marriage Market," Cahiers de recherche 9810, Université Laval - Département d'économique.
- Gary S. Becker, 1981. "A Treatise on the Family," NBER Books, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc, number beck81-1.
- Skoufias, Emmanuel, 1993.
"Labor market opportunities and intrafamily time allocation in rural households in South Asia,"
Journal of Development Economics,
Elsevier, vol. 40(2), pages 277-310, April.
- Skoufias, E., 1989. "Labor Market Opportunities And Interafamily Time Allocation In Rural Households In South Asia," Papers 3-90-2, Pennsylvania State - Department of Economics.
- Kooreman, Peter & Kapteyn, Arie, 1987.
"A Disaggregated Analysis of the Allocation of Time within the Household,"
Journal of Political Economy,
University of Chicago Press, vol. 95(2), pages 223-49, April.
- Kooreman, P. & Kapteyn, A.J., 1984. "A disaggregated analysis of the allocation of time within the household," Research Memorandum FEW 153, Tilburg University, School of Economics and Management.
- Folbre, Nancy R, 1984. "Market Opportunities, Genetic Endowments, and Intrafamily Resource Distribution: Comment," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 74(3), pages 518-20, June.
- Fafchamps, Marcel, 1998. "Efficiency in intrahousehold resource allocation," FCND discussion papers 55, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:oxf:wpaper:11. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Monica Birds)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.