IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/not/notcre/18-10.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Factor market participation and tests for separability in Afghanistan

Author

Listed:
  • Hayatullah Ahmadzai

Abstract

Using nationally representative data from repeated cross section surveys conducted in 2011/12, 2013/14, and 2016/17, we test for separability in the household model and analyse household factor market participation in Afghanistan. Estimates of a household labour demand model and tests for separability reject the null hypothesis that household labour supply and demand decisions are separate. The fact that the magnitude and quantity of labour demanded by the farm household is strongly influenced by the household endowment of labour can be interpreted to mean that there exist potential market failures in multiple markets in Afghanistan. Exploring input market participation, results reveal that ownership of information and communication technologies and transport assets by households has a strong positive influence on the use of inputs. In addition, households living in communities with better access and within a closer radius of markets are more likely to participate in factor markets and spend more on purchased inputs. Standard factors such as household socio-demographic and socio-economic factors were also observed to have an important influence on factor market participation: household size, literacy and education; land endowments and quality; off-farm income; and ownership of farming assets such as tractors, oxen and livestock, are significant determinants of participation and expenditure on inputs. The analysis allows observed transaction costs to be endogenous using instrumental variables and employing a control function approach. The endogeneity of ownership of ICT and transport equipment in fertilizer and chemical, and tractor rental markets is confirmed (we reject endogeneity in the case of hired labour). Correcting for endogeneity bias revealed a negative association between the error terms in the reduced form and structural model, but the main results were maintained.

Suggested Citation

  • Hayatullah Ahmadzai, 2018. "Factor market participation and tests for separability in Afghanistan," Discussion Papers 2018-10, University of Nottingham, CREDIT.
  • Handle: RePEc:not:notcre:18/10
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: https://www.nottingham.ac.uk/credit/documents/papers/2018/18-10.pdf
    Download Restriction: no

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Bowlus, Audra J. & Sicular, Terry, 2003. "Moving toward markets? Labor allocation in rural China," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 71(2), pages 561-583, August.
    2. Nigel Key & Elisabeth Sadoulet & Alain De Janvry, 2000. "Transactions Costs and Agricultural Household Supply Response," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 82(2), pages 245-259.
    3. Tadesse, Getaw & Bahiigwa, Godfrey, 2015. "Mobile Phones and Farmers’ Marketing Decisions in Ethiopia," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 68(C), pages 296-307.
    4. Pingali, Prabhu & Khwaja, Yasmeen & Meijer, Madelon, 2005. "Commercializing small farms: reducing transaction cost," ESA Working Papers 289070, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Agricultural Development Economics Division (ESA).
    5. Ragasa, Catherine & Mazunda, John, 2018. "The impact of agricultural extension services in the context of a heavily subsidized input system: The case of Malawi," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 105(C), pages 25-47.
    6. Kien T. Le, 2010. "Separation Hypothesis Tests in the Agricultural Household Model," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 92(5), pages 1420-1431.
    7. Emily Ouma & John Jagwe & Gideon Aiko Obare & Steffen Abele, 2010. "Determinants of smallholder farmers' participation in banana markets in Central Africa: the role of transaction costs," Agricultural Economics, International Association of Agricultural Economists, vol. 41(2), pages 111-122, March.
    8. Lapar, M. L. & Holloway, G. & Ehui, S., 2003. "Policy options promoting market participation among smallholder livestock producers: a case study from the Phillipines," Food Policy, Elsevier, vol. 28(3), pages 187-211, June.
    9. Barrett, Christopher B., 2008. "Smallholder market participation: Concepts and evidence from eastern and southern Africa," Food Policy, Elsevier, vol. 33(4), pages 299-317, August.
    10. Dillon, Brian & Barrett, Christopher B., 2017. "Agricultural factor markets in Sub-Saharan Africa: An updated view with formal tests for market failure," Food Policy, Elsevier, vol. 67(C), pages 64-77.
    11. Grimard, Franque, 2000. "Rural Labor Markets, Household Composition, and Rainfall in Cote d'Ivoire," Review of Development Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 4(1), pages 70-86, February.
    12. Benjamin, Dwayne, 1992. "Household Composition, Labor Markets, and Labor Demand: Testing for Separation in Agricultural Household Models," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 60(2), pages 287-322, March.
    13. Jeffrey M Wooldridge, 2010. "Econometric Analysis of Cross Section and Panel Data," MIT Press Books, The MIT Press, edition 2, volume 1, number 0262232588.
    14. Vuong, Quang H, 1989. "Likelihood Ratio Tests for Model Selection and Non-nested Hypotheses," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 57(2), pages 307-333, March.
    15. Mather, David & Boughton, Duncan & Jayne, T.S., 2013. "Explaining smallholder maize marketing in southern and eastern Africa: The roles of market access, technology and household resource endowments," Food Policy, Elsevier, vol. 43(C), pages 248-266.
    16. Donovan, Jason & Poole, Nigel, 2014. "Changing asset endowments and smallholder participation in higher value markets: Evidence from certified coffee producers in Nicaragua," Food Policy, Elsevier, vol. 44(C), pages 1-13.
    17. Rao, Elizaphan J.O. & Qaim, Matin, 2013. "Supermarkets and agricultural labor demand in Kenya: A gendered perspective," Food Policy, Elsevier, vol. 38(C), pages 165-176.
    18. Akuffo Amankwah & Kwamena K. Quagrainie & Paul V. Preckel, 2016. "Demand for improved fish feed in the presence of a subsidy: a double hurdle application in Kenya," Agricultural Economics, International Association of Agricultural Economists, vol. 47(6), pages 633-643, November.
    19. Daniel LaFave & Duncan Thomas, 2016. "Farms, Families, and Markets: New Evidence on Completeness of Markets in Agricultural Settings," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 84, pages 1917-1960, September.
    20. Vakis, Renos & Sadoulet, Elisabeth & de Janvry, Alain & Cafiero, Carlo, 2004. "Testing for Separability in Household Models with Heterogeneous Behavior: A Mixture Model Approach," Department of Agricultural & Resource Economics, UC Berkeley, Working Paper Series qt4hs3g5dj, Department of Agricultural & Resource Economics, UC Berkeley.
    21. Ji, Yueqing & Yu, Xiaohua & Zhong, Funing, 2012. "Machinery investment decision and off-farm employment in rural China," China Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 23(1), pages 71-80.
    22. Verkaart, Simone & Munyua, Bernard G. & Mausch, Kai & Michler, Jeffrey D., 2017. "Welfare impacts of improved chickpea adoption: A pathway for rural development in Ethiopia?," Food Policy, Elsevier, vol. 66(C), pages 50-61.
    23. Alex Winter‐Nelson & Anna Temu, 2005. "Impacts of prices and transactions costs on input usage in a liberalizing economy: evidence from Tanzanian coffee growers," Agricultural Economics, International Association of Agricultural Economists, vol. 33(3), pages 243-253, November.
    24. Poulton, Colin & Dorward, Andrew & Kydd, Jonathan, 2010. "The Future of Small Farms: New Directions for Services, Institutions, and Intermediation," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 38(10), pages 1413-1428, October.
    25. Lenis Saweda O. Liverpool-Tasie, 2014. "Fertilizer subsidies and private market participation: the case of Kano State, Nigeria," Agricultural Economics, International Association of Agricultural Economists, vol. 45(6), pages 663-678, November.
    26. Alene, Arega D. & Manyong, V.M. & Omanya, G. & Mignouna, H.D. & Bokanga, M. & Odhiambo, G., 2008. "Smallholder market participation under transactions costs: Maize supply and fertilizer demand in Kenya," Food Policy, Elsevier, vol. 33(4), pages 318-328, August.
    27. Hayatullah Ahmadzai, 2017. "Crop Diversification and Technical Efficiency in Afghanistan: Stochastic Frontier Analysis," Discussion Papers 2017-04, University of Nottingham, CREDIT.
    28. de Janvry, Alain & Fafchamps, Marcel & Sadoulet, Elisabeth, 1991. "Peasant Household Behaviour with Missing Markets: Some Paradoxes Explained," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 101(409), pages 1400-1417, November.
    29. Jeffrey M. Wooldridge, 2015. "Control Function Methods in Applied Econometrics," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 50(2), pages 420-445.
    30. Hanan G. Jacoby, 1993. "Shadow Wages and Peasant Family Labour Supply: An Econometric Application to the Peruvian Sierra," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 60(4), pages 903-921.
    31. Abdulai, Awudu & Regmi, Punya Prasad, 2000. "Estimating labor supply of farm households under nonseparability: empirical evidence from Nepal," Agricultural Economics, Blackwell, vol. 22(3), pages 309-320, April.
    32. Shyamal K. Chowdhury, 2006. "Access to a Telephone and Factor Market Participation of Rural Households in Bangladesh," Journal of Agricultural Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 57(3), pages 563-576, September.
    33. Omiti, John M. & Otieno, David Jakinda & Nyanamba, Timothy O. & McCullough, Ellen B., 2009. "Factors influencing the intensity of market participation by smallholder farmers: A case study of rural and peri-urban areas of Kenya," African Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics, African Association of Agricultural Economists, vol. 3(1), pages 1-26, March.
    34. Fischer, Elisabeth & Qaim, Matin, 2012. "Linking Smallholders to Markets: Determinants and Impacts of Farmer Collective Action in Kenya," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 40(6), pages 1255-1268.
    35. Holloway, Garth & Nicholson, Charles & Delgado, Chris & Staal, Steve & Ehui, Simeon, 2000. "Agroindustrialization through institutional innovation: Transaction costs, cooperatives and milk-market development in the east-African highlands," Agricultural Economics, Blackwell, vol. 23(3), pages 279-288, September.
    36. Stephan J. Goetz, 1992. "A Selectivity Model of Household Food Marketing Behavior in Sub-Saharan Africa," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 74(2), pages 444-452.
    37. Narrod, Clare & Roy, Devesh & Okello, Julius & Avendaño, Belem & Rich, Karl & Thorat, Amit, 2009. "Public-private partnerships and collective action in high value fruit and vegetable supply chains," Food Policy, Elsevier, vol. 34(1), pages 8-15, February.
    38. Randela, Rendani & Alemu, Zerihun Gudeta & Groenewald, Jan A., 2008. "Factors enhancing market participation by small-scale cotton farmers," Agrekon, Agricultural Economics Association of South Africa (AEASA), vol. 47(4), pages 1-18, December.
    39. Arega, D.A. & Manyong, Victor M. & Omanya, G. & Mignouna, H.D. & Bokanga, M. & Odhiambo, George D., 2008. "Smallholder marketed surplus and input use under transactions costs: maize supply and fertilizer demand in Kenya," 2007 Second International Conference, August 20-22, 2007, Accra, Ghana 52074, African Association of Agricultural Economists (AAAE).
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    More about this item

    Keywords

    transaction costs; factor markets; separability; Afghanistan;

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:not:notcre:18/10. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Hilary Hughes). General contact details of provider: http://edirc.repec.org/data/cenotuk.html .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.