IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/nbr/nberwo/5065.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Parental Leave Policies in Europe and North America

Author

Listed:
  • Christopher J. Ruhm
  • Jackqueline L. Teague

Abstract

Despite widespread international implementation, limited information is currently available on the economic impact of mandated family leave policies. This paper increases our understanding of the nature and effects of parental leave entitlements in several ways. First, we provide a brief history of family leave legislation in Europe and North America and summarize arguments relating to the efficiency and incidence of mandated leave. Second, we have constructed a longitudinal data set detailing durations of job- protected leave in 17 countries, during the 1960-89 period, and use this information to examine recent trends in the regulations. The data indicate that family leave durations grew rapidly during the decade of the 1970s, with more modest increases since that time. Third, we provide an exploratory investigation of the relationship between mandated leave policies and macroeconomic outcomes. The econometric estimates provide little support for the view that moderate periods of parental leave reduce economic efficiency but rather hint at a modest beneficial impact, particularly when considering paid time off work.

Suggested Citation

  • Christopher J. Ruhm & Jackqueline L. Teague, 1995. "Parental Leave Policies in Europe and North America," NBER Working Papers 5065, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  • Handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:5065
    Note: LS
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://www.nber.org/papers/w5065.pdf
    Download Restriction: no
    ---><---

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Levine, David I, 1991. "Just-Cause Employment Policies in the Presence of Worker Adverse Selection," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 9(3), pages 294-305, July.
    2. Ruhm, Christopher J, 1994. "Advance Notice, Job Search, and Postdisplacement Earnings," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 12(1), pages 1-28, January.
    3. McGuire, Thomas G. & Ruhm, Christopher J., 1993. "Workplace drug abuse policy," Journal of Health Economics, Elsevier, vol. 12(1), pages 19-38, April.
    4. Alan B. Krueger, 1994. "Observations on Employment-Based Government Mandates, With Particular Reference to Health Insurance," Working Papers 702, Princeton University, Department of Economics, Industrial Relations Section..
    5. Summers, Lawrence H, 1989. "Some Simple Economics of Mandated Benefits," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 79(2), pages 177-183, May.
    6. Paul Swaim & Michael Podgursky, 1990. "Advance Notice and Job Search: The Value of an Early Start," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 25(2), pages 147-178.
    7. Eileen Trzcinski & William T. Alpert, 1994. "Pregnancy and Parental Leave Benefits in the United States and Canada: Judicial Decisions and Legislation," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 29(2), pages 535-554.
    8. Edward P. Lazear, 1990. "Job Security Provisions and Employment," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 105(3), pages 699-726.
    9. Alan Krueger, 1994. "Observations on Employment-Based Government Mandates, With Particular Reference to Health Insurance," Working Papers 702, Princeton University, Department of Economics, Industrial Relations Section..
    10. Ronald G. Ehrenberg & George H. Jakubson, 1988. "Advance Notice Provisions in Plant Closing Legislation: Do They Matter?," NBER Working Papers 2611, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    11. Gruber, Jonathan, 1994. "The Incidence of Mandated Maternity Benefits," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 84(3), pages 622-641, June.
    12. Olivia S. Mitchell, 1990. "The Effects of Mandating Benefits Packages," NBER Working Papers 3260, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    13. Kuhn, Peter, 1992. "Mandatory Notice," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 10(2), pages 117-137, April.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Jan Ondrich & C. Spiess & Qing Yang & Gert Wagner, 2003. "The Liberalization of Maternity Leave Policy and the Return to Work after Childbirth in Germany," Review of Economics of the Household, Springer, vol. 1(1), pages 77-110, January.
    2. Spiess, C.Katharina & Wrohlich, Katharina, 2008. "The Parental Leave Benefit Reform in Germany: Costs and Labour Market Outcomes of Moving towards the Nordic Model," EconStor Open Access Articles and Book Chapters, ZBW - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, pages 575-591.
    3. Ekberg, John & Eriksson, Rickard & Friebel, Guido, 2013. "Parental leave — A policy evaluation of the Swedish “Daddy-Month” reform," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 97(C), pages 131-143.
    4. Gerda R. Neyer, 2006. "Family policies and fertility in Europe: fertility policies at the intersection of gender policies, employment policies and care policies," MPIDR Working Papers WP-2006-010, Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany.
    5. Lalive, Rafael & Zweimüller, Josef, 2005. "Does Parental Leave Affect Fertility and Return-to-Work? Evidence from a "True Natural Experiment"," IZA Discussion Papers 1613, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    6. Andres Erosa & Luisa Fuster & Diego Restuccia, 2010. "A General Equilibrium Analysis of Parental Leave Policies," Review of Economic Dynamics, Elsevier for the Society for Economic Dynamics, vol. 13(4), pages 742-758, October.
    7. Spieß, C. Katharina & Wrohlich, Katharina, 2006. "The Parental Leave Benefit Reform in Germany: Costs and Labour Market Outcomes of Moving towards the Scandinavian Model," IZA Discussion Papers 2372, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    8. Ekberg, John & Eriksson, Rickard & Friebel, Guido, 2004. "Sharing Responsibility? Short- and Long-term Effects of Sweden's "Daddy-Month" Reform," Working Paper Series 3/2004, Stockholm University, Swedish Institute for Social Research.
    9. Del Boca, Daniela & Locatelli, Marilena, 2006. "The Determinants of Motherhood and Work Status: A Survey," IZA Discussion Papers 2414, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    10. Ana Espinola-Arredondo & Sunita Mondal, 2009. "The effect of parental leave on female employment: evidence from state policies," Working Papers 2008-15, School of Economic Sciences, Washington State University.
    11. Duvander, Ann-Zofie & Ferrarini, Tommy & Thalberg, Sara, 2005. "Swedish parental leave and gender equality - Achievements and reform challenges in a European perspective," Arbetsrapport 2005:11, Institute for Futures Studies.
    12. Christopher J. Ruhm, 1997. "Policy Watch: The Family and Medical Leave Act," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 11(3), pages 175-186, Summer.
    13. Joyce P. Jacobsen, 2009. "Accommodating Families," Chapters, in: Kenneth G. Dau-Schmidt & Seth D. Harris & Orly Lobel (ed.), Labor and Employment Law and Economics, chapter 11, Edward Elgar Publishing.
    14. Esser, Ingrid & Ferrarini, Tommy, 2010. "Family Policy, Perceived Stress and Work-Family Conflict A Comparative Analysis of Women in 20 Welfare States," Arbetsrapport 2010:4, Institute for Futures Studies.
    15. Zhelyazkova, N., 2013. "Fathers' use of parental leave. What do we know?," MERIT Working Papers 2013-022, United Nations University - Maastricht Economic and Social Research Institute on Innovation and Technology (MERIT).
    16. Adrienne ten Cate, 2003. "The Impact of Provincial Maternity and Parental Leave Policies on Employment Rates of Women with Young Children in Canada," Department of Economics Working Papers 2003-03, McMaster University.
    17. Dorothea Alewell & Kerstin Pull, 2001. "An Internatioal Comparison and Assessment of Maternity Leave Regulation," Working Paper Series A 2001-02, Friedrich-Schiller-Universität Jena, Wirtschaftswissenschaftliche Fakultät.
    18. Rafael Lalive & Josef Zweim�ller, "undated". "Does Parental Leave Affect Fertility and Return-to-Work? Evidence from a �True Natural Experiment�," IEW - Working Papers 242, Institute for Empirical Research in Economics - University of Zurich.
    19. Hashimoto, Masanori & Percy, Rick & Schoellner, Teresa & Weinberg, Bruce A., 2004. "The Long and Short of It: Maternity Leave Coverage and Women’s Labor Market Outcomes," IZA Discussion Papers 1207, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    20. Marcia Meyers & Katherin Ross Phillips & Janet Gornick, 1996. "Supporting the Employment of Mothers: Policy Variation Across Fourteen Welfare States," LIS Working papers 139, LIS Cross-National Data Center in Luxembourg.
    21. Pylkkänen, Elina & Smith, Nina, 2004. "The Impact of Family-Friendly Policies in Denmark and Sweden on Mothers' Career Interruptions Due to Childbirth," IZA Discussion Papers 1050, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Christopher J. Ruhm, 1998. "The Economic Consequences of Parental Leave Mandates: Lessons from Europe," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 113(1), pages 285-317.
    2. Peter Kuhn, "undated". "Canada and the "OECD Hypothesis": Does Labour Market Inflexibility Explain Canada's High Level of Unemployment?," Canadian International Labour Network Working Papers 10, McMaster University.
    3. Addison, John T. & Barrett, Charles Richard & Siebert, William Stanley, 1998. "Mandated benefits, welfare, and heterogeneous firms," ZEW Discussion Papers 98-46, ZEW - Leibniz Centre for European Economic Research.
    4. Zoe Adams & Louise Bishop & Simon Deakin & Colin Fenwick & Sara Martinsson Garzelli & Giudy Rusconi & Centre for Business Research, 2018. "The Economic Significance of Laws Relating to Employment Protection & Different Forms of Employment: Analysis of a Panel of 117 Countries, 1990-2013," Working Papers wp500, Centre for Business Research, University of Cambridge.
    5. Zoe ADAMS & Louise BISHOP & Simon DEAKIN & Colin FENWICK & Sara MARTINSSON GARZELLI & Giudy RUSCONI, 2019. "The economic significance of laws relating to employment protection and different forms of employment: Analysis of a panel of 117 countries, 1990–2013," International Labour Review, International Labour Organization, vol. 158(1), pages 1-35, March.
    6. David H. Autor & William R. Kerr & Adriana D. Kugler, 2007. "Do Employment Protections Reduce Productivity? Evidence from U.S. States," NBER Working Papers 12860, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    7. Daron Acemoglu & Joshua D. Angrist, 2001. "Consequences of Employment Protection? The Case of the Americans with Disabilities Act," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 109(5), pages 915-957, October.
    8. John T. Addison & Paulino Teixeira, 2003. "The Economics of Employment Protection," Journal of Labor Research, Transaction Publishers, vol. 24(1), pages 85-129, January.
    9. Addison, John T & Chilton, John B, 1997. "Nondisclosure as a Contract Remedy: Explaining the Advance-Notice Puzzle," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 15(1), pages 143-164, January.
    10. Almeida, Rita & Carneiro, Pedro, 2008. "Mandated benefits, employment, and inequality in a dual economy," Social Protection Discussion Papers and Notes 45051, The World Bank.
    11. Budd, John W., 2000. "The effect of strike replacement legislation on employment," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 7(2), pages 225-247, March.
    12. repec:eee:labchp:v:3:y:1999:i:pc:p:3029-3084 is not listed on IDEAS
    13. repec:eee:labchp:v:3:y:1999:i:pc:p:3417-3528 is not listed on IDEAS
    14. Ant Bozkaya & William R. Kerr, 2009. "Labor Regulations and European Private Equity," Working Papers CEB 09-055.RS, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles.
    15. Christine Jolls, 2007. "Employment Law and the Labor Market," NBER Working Papers 13230, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    16. Jens Suedekum & Peter Ruehmann, 2003. "Severance Payments and Firm–specific Human Capital," LABOUR, CEIS, vol. 17(1), pages 47-62, March.
    17. David H. Autor & John J. Donohue & Stewart J. Schwab, 2006. "The Costs of Wrongful-Discharge Laws," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 88(2), pages 211-231, May.
    18. Alewell, Dorothea & Pull, Kerstin, 2005. "Rechtsschutz für Mütter : eine ökonomische Analyse des Mutterschutzgesetzes und seiner Wirkungen auf die Beschäftigungssituation von Frauen (Legal protection for mothers * an economic analysis of the ," Zeitschrift für ArbeitsmarktForschung - Journal for Labour Market Research, Institut für Arbeitsmarkt- und Berufsforschung (IAB), Nürnberg [Institute for Employment Research, Nuremberg, Germany], vol. 38(2/3), pages 341-356.
    19. Alewell, Dorothea & Pull, Kerstin, 2005. "Rechtsschutz für Mütter : eine ökonomische Analyse des Mutterschutzgesetzes und seiner Wirkungen auf die Beschäftigungssituation von Frauen (Legal protection for mothers * an economic analysis of the ," Zeitschrift für ArbeitsmarktForschung - Journal for Labour Market Research, Institut für Arbeitsmarkt- und Berufsforschung (IAB), Nürnberg [Institute for Employment Research, Nuremberg, Germany], vol. 38(2/3), pages 341-356.
    20. Alewell, Dorothea & Pull, Kerstin, 2005. "Rechtsschutz für Mütter : eine ökonomische Analyse des Mutterschutzgesetzes und seiner Wirkungen auf die Beschäftigungssituation von Frauen (Legal protection for mothers * an economic analysis of the ," Zeitschrift für ArbeitsmarktForschung - Journal for Labour Market Research, Institut für Arbeitsmarkt- und Berufsforschung (IAB), Nürnberg [Institute for Employment Research, Nuremberg, Germany], vol. 38(2/3), pages 341-356.
    21. Christopher J. Ruhm, 1997. "Policy Watch: The Family and Medical Leave Act," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 11(3), pages 175-186, Summer.
    22. Dorothea Alewell & Kerstin Pull, 2001. "An Internatioal Comparison and Assessment of Maternity Leave Regulation," Working Paper Series A 2001-02, Friedrich-Schiller-Universität Jena, Wirtschaftswissenschaftliche Fakultät.

    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • I18 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Health - - - Government Policy; Regulation; Public Health
    • J38 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Wages, Compensation, and Labor Costs - - - Public Policy

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:5065. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: . General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/nberrus.html .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (email available below). General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/nberrus.html .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.