IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/nbr/nberwo/4713.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Regional Adjustment to Trade Liberalization

Author

Listed:
  • Gordon H. Hanson

Abstract

In this paper, I study the effect of economic integration with the United States on state-industry employment growth in Mexico. I disentangle the effects of two opposing forces on regional labor demand: transport-cost considerations, which, all else equal, encourage firms to relocate their activities to regions with relatively good access to foreign markets, and agglomeration economies, which, all else equal, reinforce the pre-trade pattern of industry location. I find that trade liberalization has strong effects on industry location. Consistent with the transport-costs hypothesis, post-trade employment growth is higher in state-industries that are relatively close to the United States. The results on agglomeration effects are mixed. Employment growth is higher where agglomeration in upstream and downstream industries is higher, but not where the agglomeration of firms in the same industry is higher. The results suggest trade liberalization has contributed to the decomposition of the manufacturing belt in and around Mexico City and the formation of broadly specialized industry centers located in northern Mexico, relatively close to the United States. The North American Free Trade Agreement is likely to reinforce these movements.

Suggested Citation

  • Gordon H. Hanson, 1994. "Regional Adjustment to Trade Liberalization," NBER Working Papers 4713, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  • Handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:4713
    Note: ITI
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://www.nber.org/papers/w4713.pdf
    Download Restriction: no

    Other versions of this item:

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Romer, Paul M, 1986. "Increasing Returns and Long-run Growth," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 94(5), pages 1002-1037, October.
    2. Paul Krugman, 1994. "Fluctuations, Instability, and Agglomeration," NBER Working Papers 4616, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    3. Eaton, Jonathan & Eckstein, Zvi, 1997. "Cities and growth: Theory and evidence from France and Japan," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 27(4-5), pages 443-474, August.
    4. Krugman, Paul & Elizondo, Raul Livas, 1996. "Trade policy and the Third World metropolis," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 49(1), pages 137-150, April.
    5. Henderson, J V, 1974. "The Sizes and Types of Cities," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 64(4), pages 640-656, September.
    6. Rauch, James E, 1991. "Comparative Advantage, Geographic Advantage and the Volume of Trade," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 101(408), pages 1230-1244, September.
    7. Paul Krugman & Anthony J. Venables, 1995. "Globalization and the Inequality of Nations," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 110(4), pages 857-880.
    8. repec:wsi:wschap:9789813209398_0006 is not listed on IDEAS
    9. Roback, Jennifer, 1982. "Wages, Rents, and the Quality of Life," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 90(6), pages 1257-1278, December.
    10. James E. Rauch, 1993. "Does History Matter Only When It Matters Little? The Case of City-Industry Location," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 108(3), pages 843-867.
    11. Adam B. Jaffe & Manuel Trajtenberg & Rebecca Henderson, 1993. "Geographic Localization of Knowledge Spillovers as Evidenced by Patent Citations," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 108(3), pages 577-598.
    12. Fujita, Masahisa, 1993. "Monopolistic competition and urban systems," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 37(2-3), pages 308-315, April.
    13. Courant, Paul N & Deardorff, Alan V, 1992. "International Trade with Lumpy Countries," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 100(1), pages 198-210, February.
    14. Krugman, Paul, 1991. "Increasing Returns and Economic Geography," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 99(3), pages 483-499, June.
    15. Glaeser, Edward L & Hedi D. Kallal & Jose A. Scheinkman & Andrei Shleifer, 1992. "Growth in Cities," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 100(6), pages 1126-1152, December.
      • Edward L. Glaeser & Hedi D. Kallal & Jose A. Scheinkman & Andrei Shleifer, 1991. "Growth in Cities," NBER Working Papers 3787, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
      • Glaeser, Edward Ludwig & Kallal, Hedi D. & Scheinkman, Jose A. & Shleifer, Andrei, 1992. "Growth in Cities," Scholarly Articles 3451309, Harvard University Department of Economics.
    16. Romer, Paul M, 1990. "Endogenous Technological Change," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 98(5), pages 71-102, October.
    17. Alwyn Young, 1991. "Learning by Doing and the Dynamic Effects of International Trade," NBER Working Papers 3577, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    18. Hanson, Gordon H, 1997. "Increasing Returns, Trade and the Regional Structure of Wages," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 107(440), pages 113-133, January.
    19. Luis A. Rivera-Batiz & Paul M. Romer, 1991. "Economic Integration and Endogenous Growth," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 106(2), pages 531-555.
    20. Nakamura, Ryohei, 1985. "Agglomeration economies in urban manufacturing industries: A case of Japanese cities," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 17(1), pages 108-124, January.
    21. Shang-Jin Wei, 1993. "Open door policy and China's rapid growth: evidence from city-level data," Pacific Basin Working Paper Series 93-09, Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco.
    22. Alwyn Young, 1991. "Learning by Doing and the Dynamic Effects of International Trade," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 106(2), pages 369-405.
    23. Henderson, J. Vernon, 1986. "Efficiency of resource usage and city size," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 19(1), pages 47-70, January.
    24. Francisco L. Rivera-Batiz & Luis A. Rivera-Batiz, 2018. "Increasing Returns, Monopolistic Competition, and Agglomeration Economies in Consumption and Production," World Scientific Book Chapters,in: International Trade, Capital Flows and Economic Development, chapter 6, pages 141-176 World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd..
    25. Venables, Anthony J, 1996. "Equilibrium Locations of Vertically Linked Industries," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 37(2), pages 341-359, May.
    26. White, Halbert, 1980. "A Heteroskedasticity-Consistent Covariance Matrix Estimator and a Direct Test for Heteroskedasticity," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 48(4), pages 817-838, May.
    27. Kiminori Matsuyama & Takaaki Takahashi, 1998. "Self-Defeating Regional Concentration," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 65(2), pages 211-234.
    28. repec:hhs:iuiwop:430 is not listed on IDEAS
    29. Rauch, James E., 1989. "Increasing returns to scale and the pattern of trade," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 26(3-4), pages 359-369, May.
    30. Carlos M. Asilis & Luis Rivera-Batiz, 1994. "Geography, Trade Patterns, and Economic Policy," IMF Working Papers 94/16, International Monetary Fund.
    31. Lucas, Robert Jr., 1988. "On the mechanics of economic development," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 22(1), pages 3-42, July.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • F14 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Empirical Studies of Trade
    • R11 - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics - - General Regional Economics - - - Regional Economic Activity: Growth, Development, Environmental Issues, and Changes

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:4713. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (). General contact details of provider: http://edirc.repec.org/data/nberrus.html .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.