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Cross-Border Acquisitions and Target Firms' Performance: Evidence From Japanese Firm-Level Data

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  • Kyoji Fukao
  • Keiko Ito
  • Hyeog Ug Kwon
  • Miho Takizawa

Abstract

Using Japanese firm-level data for the period from 1994-2002, this paper examines whether a firm is chosen as an acquisition target based on its productivity level, profitability and other characteristics and whether the performance of Japanese firms that were acquired by foreign firms improves after the acquisition. In our previous study for the Japanese manufacturing sector, we found that M&As by foreigners brought a larger and quicker improvement in total factor productivity (TFP) and profit rates than M&As by domestic firms. However, it may argued that firms acquired by foreign firms showed better performance simply because foreign investors acquired more promising Japanese firms than Japanese investors did. In order to address this potential problem of selection bias problem, in this study we combine a difference-in-differences approach with propensity score matching. The basic idea of matching is that we look for firms that were not acquired by foreign firms but had similar characteristics to firms that were acquired by foreigners. Using these firms as control subjects and comparing the acquired firms and the control subjects, we examine whether firms acquired by foreigners show a greater improvement in performance than firms not acquired by foreigners. Both results from unmatched samples and matched samples show that foreign acquisitions improved target firms%u2019 productivity and profitability significantly more and quicker than acquisitions by domestic firms. Moreover, we find that there is no positive impact on target firms%u2019 profitability in the case of both within-group in-in acquisitions and in-in acquisitions by domestic outsiders. In fact, in the manufacturing sector, the return on assets even deteriorated one year and two years after within-group in-in acquisition, while the TFP growth rate was higher after within-group in-in acquisitions than after in-in acquisitions by outsiders. Our results imply that in the case of within-group in-in acquisitions, parent firms may be trying to quickly restructure acquired firms even at the cost of deteriorating profitability.

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  • Kyoji Fukao & Keiko Ito & Hyeog Ug Kwon & Miho Takizawa, 2006. "Cross-Border Acquisitions and Target Firms' Performance: Evidence From Japanese Firm-Level Data," NBER Working Papers 12422, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  • Handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:12422
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    3. Roger Bandick & Holger Görg, 2016. "Foreign acquisition, plant survival, and employment growth," World Scientific Book Chapters, in: MULTINATIONAL ENTERPRISES AND HOST COUNTRY DEVELOPMENT Volume 53: World Scientific Studies in International Economics, chapter 7, pages 115-141, World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd..
    4. Zajc Kejžar, Katja, 2016. "Shutdown versus M&A: An empirical investigation of Slovenian incumbent firms’ responses to foreign competition," Economic Systems, Elsevier, vol. 40(2), pages 247-259.
    5. Giorgia Maffini & Socrates Mokkas, 2009. "Profit Shifting and Measured Productivity of Multinational Firms," Working Papers 0920, Oxford University Centre for Business Taxation.
    6. Siedschlag Iulia & Kaitila Ville & McQuinn John & Zhang Xiaoheng, 2014. "International Investment and Firm Performance: Empirical Evidence from Small Open Economies," Journal of Economics and Statistics (Jahrbuecher fuer Nationaloekonomie und Statistik), De Gruyter, vol. 234(6), pages 662-687, December.
    7. Kokko Ari & Söderlund Bengt & Tingvall Patrik Gustavsson, 2014. "Redirecting International Trade: Contracts, Conflicts, and Institutions," Journal of Economics and Statistics (Jahrbuecher fuer Nationaloekonomie und Statistik), De Gruyter, vol. 234(6), pages 688-721, December.
    8. Giorgia Maffini & Socrates Mokkas, 2008. "Transfer-pricing and Measured Productivity of Multinational Firms," Working Papers 0817, Oxford University Centre for Business Taxation.
    9. Chen, Wenjie, 2011. "The effect of investor origin on firm performance: Domestic and foreign direct investment in the United States," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 83(2), pages 219-228, March.
    10. Pierluigi Montalbano & Silvia Nenci & Carlo Pietrobelli, 2014. "International Linkages, Value Added Trade and LAC Firms' Productivity," Departmental Working Papers of Economics - University 'Roma Tre' 0198, Department of Economics - University Roma Tre.
    11. Dang, Man & Henry, Darren & Yin, Xiangkang & Vo, Thuy Anh, 2018. "Target corporate governance, acquirers' location choices, and partial acquisitions," Pacific-Basin Finance Journal, Elsevier, vol. 50(C), pages 82-104.
    12. Ocieszak Marcin, 2020. "Determinants of Companies’ Financial Performance Following M&A Transactions in Poland," Journal of Management and Business Administration. Central Europe, Sciendo, vol. 28(4), pages 51-66, December.
    13. Julian Wright, 2009. "Comment on "Merger Activities and Stock Market Valuation in China (Joint with Yu Zhang)" 2," NBER Chapters, in: Financial Sector Development in the Pacific Rim, pages 262-264, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    14. Valeria Gattai & Giorgia Sali, 2016. "FDI and heterogeneous performance of European enterprises," Economia e Politica Industriale: Journal of Industrial and Business Economics, Springer;Associazione Amici di Economia e Politica Industriale, vol. 43(1), pages 25-65, March.
    15. XU Peng, 2015. "Risk-taking and Firm Growth," Discussion papers 15061, Research Institute of Economy, Trade and Industry (RIETI).
    16. Dang, Man & Nguyen, Ngoc Vu & Mazur, Mieszko & Puwanenthiren, Premkanth & Nguyen, Ngoc Thang, 2021. "Global policy uncertainty and cross-border acquisitions," The Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 80(C), pages 224-235.
    17. Zhu, PengCheng & Jog, Vijay & Otchere, Isaac, 2011. "Partial acquisitions in emerging markets: A test of the strategic market entry and corporate control hypotheses," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 17(2), pages 288-305, April.
    18. Barbara M. Roberts & Steve Thompson & Katarzyna Mikolajczyk, 2008. "Privatization, Foreign Acquisition and the Motives for FDI in Eastern Europe," Review of World Economics (Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv), Springer;Institut für Weltwirtschaft (Kiel Institute for the World Economy), vol. 144(3), pages 408-427, October.
    19. Edamura, Kazuma & Haneda, Sho & Inui, Tomohiko & Tan, Xiaofei & Todo, Yasuyuki, 2014. "Impact of Chinese cross-border outbound M&As on firm performance: Econometric analysis using firm-level data," China Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 30(C), pages 169-179.
    20. Higgins, Huong N., 2013. "Conflicts of interest between banks and firms: Evidence from Japanese mergers," Pacific-Basin Finance Journal, Elsevier, vol. 24(C), pages 156-178.
    21. Joze P. Damijan & Crt Kostevc & Matija Rojec, 2012. "Growing lemons and cherries? Pre- and post-acquisition performance of foreign-acquired firms in new EU member states," LICOS Discussion Papers 31812, LICOS - Centre for Institutions and Economic Performance, KU Leuven.
    22. XU Peng, 2017. "Foreign Institutional Ownership and Risk Taking," Discussion papers 17061, Research Institute of Economy, Trade and Industry (RIETI).
    23. Kaoru Hosono, 2009. "Comment on "Merger Activities and Stock Market Valuation in China (Joint with Yu Zhang)"," NBER Chapters, in: Financial Sector Development in the Pacific Rim, pages 260-262, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.

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    JEL classification:

    • C14 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Econometric and Statistical Methods and Methodology: General - - - Semiparametric and Nonparametric Methods: General
    • D24 - Microeconomics - - Production and Organizations - - - Production; Cost; Capital; Capital, Total Factor, and Multifactor Productivity; Capacity
    • F21 - International Economics - - International Factor Movements and International Business - - - International Investment; Long-Term Capital Movements
    • F23 - International Economics - - International Factor Movements and International Business - - - Multinational Firms; International Business

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