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Cross-Border Acquisitions and Target Firms' Performance: Evidence from Japanese Firm-Level Data

In: International Financial Issues in the Pacific Rim: Global Imbalances, Financial Liberalization, and Exchange Rate Policy (NBER-EASE Volume 17)

  • Kyoji Fukao
  • Keiko Ito
  • Hyeog Ug Kwon
  • Miho Takizawa

Using Japanese firm-level data for the period from 1994-2002, this paper examines whether a firm is chosen as an acquisition target based on its productivity level, profitability and other characteristics and whether the performance of Japanese firms that were acquired by foreign firms improves after the acquisition. In our previous study for the Japanese manufacturing sector, we found that M&As by foreigners brought a larger and quicker improvement in total factor productivity (TFP) and profit rates than M&As by domestic firms. However, it may argued that firms acquired by foreign firms showed better performance simply because foreign investors acquired more promising Japanese firms than Japanese investors did. In order to address this potential problem of selection bias problem, in this study we combine a difference-in-differences approach with propensity score matching. The basic idea of matching is that we look for firms that were not acquired by foreign firms but had similar characteristics to firms that were acquired by foreigners. Using these firms as control subjects and comparing the acquired firms and the control subjects, we examine whether firms acquired by foreigners show a greater improvement in performance than firms not acquired by foreigners. Both results from unmatched samples and matched samples show that foreign acquisitions improved target firms%u2019 productivity and profitability significantly more and quicker than acquisitions by domestic firms. Moreover, we find that there is no positive impact on target firms%u2019 profitability in the case of both within-group in-in acquisitions and in-in acquisitions by domestic outsiders. In fact, in the manufacturing sector, the return on assets even deteriorated one year and two years after within-group in-in acquisition, while the TFP growth rate was higher after within-group in-in acquisitions than after in-in acquisitions by outsiders. Our results imply that in the case of within-group in-in acquisi

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This chapter was published in:
  • Takatoshi Ito & Andrew K. Rose, 2008. "International Financial Issues in the Pacific Rim: Global Imbalances, Financial Liberalization, and Exchange Rate Policy (NBER-EASE Volume 17)," NBER Books, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc, number ito_08-1, December.
  • This item is provided by National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc in its series NBER Chapters with number 6988.
    Handle: RePEc:nbr:nberch:6988
    Contact details of provider: Postal: National Bureau of Economic Research, 1050 Massachusetts Avenue Cambridge, MA 02138, U.S.A.
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    1. Heckman, James J & Ichimura, Hidehiko & Todd, Petra, 1998. "Matching as an Econometric Evaluation Estimator," Review of Economic Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 65(2), pages 261-94, April.
    2. James Heckman & Hidehiko Ichimura & Jeffrey Smith & Petra Todd, 1998. "Characterizing Selection Bias Using Experimental Data," NBER Working Papers 6699, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    3. Sang V. Nguyen & Michael Ollinger, 2006. "Mergers and Acquisitions and Productivity in the U.S. Meat Products Industries: Evidence from the Micro Data," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 88(3), pages 606-616.
    4. Takatoshi Ito & Andrew K. Rose, 2004. "Growth and Productivity in East Asia, NBER-East Asia Seminar on Economics, Volume 13," NBER Books, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc, number ito_04-2, December.
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    8. Fukao, Kyoji & Ito, Keiko & Kwon, Hyeog Ug, 2005. "Do out-in M&As bring higher TFP to Japan? An empirical analysis based on micro-data on Japanese manufacturing firms," Journal of the Japanese and International Economies, Elsevier, vol. 19(2), pages 272-301, June.
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    16. Ito, Keiko & Fukao, Kyoji, 2003. "Foreign Direct Investment and Trade in Japan: An Empirical Analysis Based on the Establishment and Enterprise Census for 1996," Discussion Paper Series a441, Institute of Economic Research, Hitotsubashi University.
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    19. Ralph Paprzycki & Kyoji Fukao, 2005. "The Extent and History of Foreign Direct Investment in Japan," Hi-Stat Discussion Paper Series d05-84, Institute of Economic Research, Hitotsubashi University.
    20. Harris, Robert S & Ravenscraft, David, 1991. " The Role of Acquisitions in Foreign Direct Investment: Evidence from the U.S. Stock Market," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 46(3), pages 825-44, July.
    21. Odagiri, Hiroyuki & Hase, Tatsuo, 1989. "Are mergers and acquisitions going to be popular in Japan too? : An empirical study," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 7(1), pages 49-72, March.
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