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Cross-Border Acquisitions and Target Firms' Performance: Evidence from Japanese Firm-Level Data

Author

Listed:
  • Fukao, Kyoji
  • Ito, Keiko
  • Kwon, Hyeog Ug
  • Takizawa, Miho

Abstract

Using Japanese firm-level data for the period from 1994-2002, this paper examines whether a firm is chosen as an acquisition target based on its productivity level, profitability and other characteristics and whether the performance of Japanese firms that were acquired by foreign firms improves after the acquisition. In our previous study for the Japanese manufacturing sector, we found that M&As by foreigners brought a larger and quicker improvement in total factor productivity (TFP) and profit rates than M&As by domestic firms. However, it may argued that firms acquired by foreign firms showed better performance simply because foreign investors acquired more promising Japanese firms than Japanese investors did. In order to address this potential problem of selection bias problem, in this study we combine a difference-in-differences approach with propensity score matching. The basic idea of matching is that we look for firms that were not acquired by foreign firms but had similar characteristics to firms that were acquired by foreigners. Using these firms as control subjects and comparing the acquired firms and the control subjects, we examine whether firms acquired by foreigners show a greater improvement in performance than firms not acquired by foreigners. Both results from unmatched samples and matched samples show that foreign acquisitions improved target firms' productivity and profitability significantly more and quicker than acquisitions by domestic firms. Moreover, we find that there is no positive impact on target firms' profitability in the case of both within-group in-in acquisitions and in-in acquisitions by domestic outsiders. In fact, in the manufacturing sector, the return on assets even deteriorated one year and two years after within-group in-in acquisition, while the TFP growth rate was higher after within-group in-in acquisitions than after in-in acquisitions by outsiders. Our results imply that in the case of within-group in-in acquisitions, parent firms may be trying to quickly restructure acquired firms even at the cost of deteriorating profitability.

Suggested Citation

  • Fukao, Kyoji & Ito, Keiko & Kwon, Hyeog Ug & Takizawa, Miho, 2007. "Cross-Border Acquisitions and Target Firms' Performance: Evidence from Japanese Firm-Level Data," CEI Working Paper Series 2006-18, Center for Economic Institutions, Institute of Economic Research, Hitotsubashi University.
  • Handle: RePEc:hit:hitcei:2006-18
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    References listed on IDEAS

    as
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    Cited by:

    1. ITO Keiko, 2011. "Entry of Foreign Multinational Firms and Productivity Growth of Domestic Firms: The case of Japanese firms," Discussion papers 11063, Research Institute of Economy, Trade and Industry (RIETI).
    2. Roger Bandick & Holger Görg, 2010. "Foreign acquisition, plant survival, and employment growth," Canadian Journal of Economics, Canadian Economics Association, vol. 43(2), pages 547-573, May.
    3. Wang, Jian & Wang, Xiao, 2015. "Benefits of foreign ownership: Evidence from foreign direct investment in China," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 97(2), pages 325-338.
    4. Valeria Gattai & Giorgia Sali, 2016. "FDI and heterogeneous performance of European enterprises," Economia e Politica Industriale: Journal of Industrial and Business Economics, Springer;Associazione Amici di Economia e Politica Industriale, vol. 43(1), pages 25-65, March.
    5. Zajc Kejžar, Katja, 2016. "Shutdown versus M&A: An empirical investigation of Slovenian incumbent firms’ responses to foreign competition," Economic Systems, Elsevier, vol. 40(2), pages 247-259.
    6. XU Peng, 2015. "Risk-taking and Firm Growth," Discussion papers 15061, Research Institute of Economy, Trade and Industry (RIETI).
    7. Giorgia Maffini & Socrates Mokkas, 2009. "Profit Shifting and Measured Productivity of Multinational Firms," Working Papers 0920, Oxford University Centre for Business Taxation.
    8. Siedschlag Iulia & Kaitila Ville & McQuinn John & Zhang Xiaoheng, 2014. "International Investment and Firm Performance: Empirical Evidence from Small Open Economies," Journal of Economics and Statistics (Jahrbuecher fuer Nationaloekonomie und Statistik), De Gruyter, vol. 234(6), pages 662-687, December.
    9. Kokko Ari & Söderlund Bengt & Tingvall Patrik Gustavsson, 2014. "Redirecting International Trade: Contracts, Conflicts, and Institutions," Journal of Economics and Statistics (Jahrbuecher fuer Nationaloekonomie und Statistik), De Gruyter, vol. 234(6), pages 688-721, December.
    10. Giorgia Maffini & Socrates Mokkas, 2008. "Transfer-pricing and Measured Productivity of Multinational Firms," Working Papers 0817, Oxford University Centre for Business Taxation.
    11. Zhu, PengCheng & Jog, Vijay & Otchere, Isaac, 2011. "Partial acquisitions in emerging markets: A test of the strategic market entry and corporate control hypotheses," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 17(2), pages 288-305, April.
    12. Barbara M. Roberts & Steve Thompson & Katarzyna Mikolajczyk, 2008. "Privatization, Foreign Acquisition and the Motives for FDI in Eastern Europe," Review of World Economics (Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv), Springer;Institut für Weltwirtschaft (Kiel Institute for the World Economy), vol. 144(3), pages 408-427, October.
    13. Bandick, Roger & Görg, Holger, 2009. "Foreign acquisition, plant survival, and employment growth," Kiel Working Papers 1525, Kiel Institute for the World Economy (IfW).
    14. Chen, Wenjie, 2011. "The effect of investor origin on firm performance: Domestic and foreign direct investment in the United States," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 83(2), pages 219-228, March.
    15. Pierluigi Montalbano & Silvia Nenci & Carlo Pietrobelli, 2014. "International Linkages, Value Added Trade and LAC Firms' Productivity," Departmental Working Papers of Economics - University 'Roma Tre' 0198, Department of Economics - University Roma Tre.
    16. Edamura, Kazuma & Haneda, Sho & Inui, Tomohiko & Tan, Xiaofei & Todo, Yasuyuki, 2014. "Impact of Chinese cross-border outbound M&As on firm performance: Econometric analysis using firm-level data," China Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 30(C), pages 169-179.
    17. Higgins, Huong N., 2013. "Conflicts of interest between banks and firms: Evidence from Japanese mergers," Pacific-Basin Finance Journal, Elsevier, vol. 24(C), pages 156-178.
    18. Joze P. Damijan & Crt Kostevc & Matija Rojec, 2012. "Growing lemons and cherries? Pre- and post-acquisition performance of foreign-acquired firms in new EU member states," LICOS Discussion Papers 31812, LICOS - Centre for Institutions and Economic Performance, KU Leuven.
    19. XU Peng, 2017. "Foreign Institutional Ownership and Risk Taking," Discussion papers 17061, Research Institute of Economy, Trade and Industry (RIETI).
    20. Kaoru Hosono, 2009. "Comment on "Merger Activities and Stock Market Valuation in China (Joint with Yu Zhang)"," NBER Chapters,in: Financial Sector Development in the Pacific Rim, East Asia Seminar on Economics, Volume 18, pages 260-262 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    21. Julian Wright, 2009. "Comment on "Merger Activities and Stock Market Valuation in China (Joint with Yu Zhang)" 2," NBER Chapters,in: Financial Sector Development in the Pacific Rim, East Asia Seminar on Economics, Volume 18, pages 262-264 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    FDI; TFP; Acquisition; Selection bias; Propensity score matching; Average treatment effect;

    JEL classification:

    • C14 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Econometric and Statistical Methods and Methodology: General - - - Semiparametric and Nonparametric Methods: General
    • D24 - Microeconomics - - Production and Organizations - - - Production; Cost; Capital; Capital, Total Factor, and Multifactor Productivity; Capacity
    • F21 - International Economics - - International Factor Movements and International Business - - - International Investment; Long-Term Capital Movements
    • F23 - International Economics - - International Factor Movements and International Business - - - Multinational Firms; International Business

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