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Do Out-In M&As Bring Higher TFP to Japan? An Empirical Analysis Based on Micro-data on Japanese Manufacturing Firms

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  • Kyoji Fukao
  • Keiko Ito
  • Hyeog Ug Kwon

Abstract

This paper compares the performance of foreign-owned and domestically-owned firms, using micro data on Japanese firms in the manufacturing sector for the period 1994-2000. The overall comparison between foreign-owned and Japanese companies shows that foreign-owned companies enjoyed 5% higher TFP as well as higher earnings and returns on capital. They also displayed a higher capital-labor ratio and higher R&D intensity. Reflecting their higher TFP and labor-saving production patterns, foreign-owned companies showed higher labor productivity and wage rates as well. By estimating Probit models, we found that foreign firms acquire Japanese firms with higher TFP levels and higher profit rates. In contrast, in-in M&As seem to have the characteristics of rescue missions. Small firms with a higher total liability/total asset ratio tend to be chosen as targets of in-in M&As. We also estimated the dynamic effects of M&As on target firms. The results indicate that out-in M&As improve target firms' TFP level and current profit/sales ratio. Compared with in-in M&As, out-in M&As bring a larger and quicker improvement in TFP and the profit rate but no increase in target firms' employment two years after the acquisition.

Suggested Citation

  • Kyoji Fukao & Keiko Ito & Hyeog Ug Kwon, 2005. "Do Out-In M&As Bring Higher TFP to Japan? An Empirical Analysis Based on Micro-data on Japanese Manufacturing Firms," Discussion papers 05005, Research Institute of Economy, Trade and Industry (RIETI).
  • Handle: RePEc:eti:dpaper:05005
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    Cited by:

    1. ITO Keiko, 2011. "Entry of Foreign Multinational Firms and Productivity Growth of Domestic Firms: The case of Japanese firms," Discussion papers 11063, Research Institute of Economy, Trade and Industry (RIETI).
    2. Buckley, Peter J. & Elia, Stefano & Kafouros, Mario, 2014. "Acquisitions by emerging market multinationals: Implications for firm performance," Journal of World Business, Elsevier, vol. 49(4), pages 611-632.
    3. Keiko Ito & Kyoji Fukao, 2010. "Determinants of the Profitability of Japanese Manufacturing Affiliates in China and Other Regions: Does Localisation of Procurement, Sales and Management Matter?," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 33(12), pages 1639-1671, December.
    4. Morikawa, Masayuki, 2013. "Productivity and survival of family firms in Japan," Journal of Economics and Business, Elsevier, vol. 70(C), pages 111-125.
    5. Wu, Zai Bin & Yeung, Godfrey & Mok, Vincent & Han, Zhaozhou, 2007. "Firm-specific knowledge and technical efficiency of watch and clock manufacturing firms in China," International Journal of Production Economics, Elsevier, vol. 107(2), pages 317-332, June.
    6. Kyoji Fukao & Keiko Ito & Shigesaburo Kabe & Deqiang Liu & Fumihide Takeuchi, 2006. "Do Japanese Firms Fail to Catch up in Localization? An Empirical Analysis Based on Affiliate-level Data of Japanese Firms and a Case Study of Automobile Industry in China," Microeconomics Working Papers 21890, East Asian Bureau of Economic Research.
    7. Kenjiro Hirata & Ayako Suzuki & Katsuya Takii, 2016. "Does Managerial Experience in a Target Firm Matter for the Retention of Managers after M&As?," OSIPP Discussion Paper 16E006, Osaka School of International Public Policy, Osaka University.
    8. Morikawa, Masayuki, 2010. "Labor unions and productivity: An empirical analysis using Japanese firm-level data," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 17(6), pages 1030-1037, December.
    9. Hyeog Ug Kwon, 2007. "Exprots, FDI, and Productivity: Evidence from Japanese Manufacturing Firms," Hi-Stat Discussion Paper Series d07-214, Institute of Economic Research, Hitotsubashi University.
    10. Kyoji Fukao & Keiko Ito & Hyeog Ug Kwon & Miho Takizawa, 2008. "Cross-Border Acquisitions and Target Firms' Performance: Evidence from Japanese Firm-Level Data," NBER Chapters,in: International Financial Issues in the Pacific Rim: Global Imbalances, Financial Liberalization, and Exchange Rate Policy (NBER-EASE Volume 17), pages 347-389 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    11. Kokko Ari & Söderlund Bengt & Tingvall Patrik Gustavsson, 2014. "Redirecting International Trade: Contracts, Conflicts, and Institutions," Journal of Economics and Statistics (Jahrbuecher fuer Nationaloekonomie und Statistik), De Gruyter, vol. 234(6), pages 688-721, December.
    12. Schiffbauer, Marc & Siedschlag, Iulia & Ruane, Frances, 2017. "Do foreign mergers and acquisitions boost firm productivity?," International Business Review, Elsevier, vol. 26(6), pages 1124-1140.
    13. Kyoji Fukao & Keiko Ito & Shigesaburo Kabe & Deqiang Liu & Fumihide Takeuchi, 2006. "Are Japanese Firms Failing to Catch up in Localization? An Empirical Analysis Based on Affiliate-level Data of Japanese Firms and a Case Study of the Automobile Industry in China," Hi-Stat Discussion Paper Series d06-191, Institute of Economic Research, Hitotsubashi University.
    14. Siedschlag Iulia & Kaitila Ville & McQuinn John & Zhang Xiaoheng, 2014. "International Investment and Firm Performance: Empirical Evidence from Small Open Economies," Journal of Economics and Statistics (Jahrbuecher fuer Nationaloekonomie und Statistik), De Gruyter, vol. 234(6), pages 662-687, December.
    15. Eyup Basti & Nizamettin Bayyurt & Ahmet Akin, 2011. "A Comparative Performance Analysis of Foreign and Domestic Manufacturing Companies in Turkey," European Journal of Economic and Political Studies, Fatih University, vol. 4(2), pages 127-139.
    16. Takechi, Kazutaka, 2013. "Understanding the productivity effect of M&A in Japan: An empirical analysis of the electronics industry from 1989 to 1998," Japan and the World Economy, Elsevier, vol. 25, pages 1-9.
    17. Antonios Georgopoulos & George Argyros & Giota Boura, 2008. "Which Targets Stimulate Cross-border Acquisitions? An Empirical Investigation of Industrial Organization and Trade Factors within a Competition Framework of International and Domestic Acquisition Targ," Journal of Industry, Competition and Trade, Springer, vol. 8(1), pages 55-72, March.
    18. Georgopoulos, Antonios & Preusse, Heinz Gert, 2009. "Cross-border acquisitions vs. Greenfield investment: A comparative performance analysis in Greece," International Business Review, Elsevier, vol. 18(6), pages 592-605, December.
    19. Tatsuyoshi Miyakoshi & Pekka Ilmakunnas, 2009. "What decreases the TFP ? The aging labor and ICT imbalance," Discussion Papers in Economics and Business 09-03, Osaka University, Graduate School of Economics and Osaka School of International Public Policy (OSIPP).

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    JEL classification:

    • F23 - International Economics - - International Factor Movements and International Business - - - Multinational Firms; International Business

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