Sectoral Productivity and Economic Growth in Japan, 1970-98: An Empirical Analysis Based on the JIP Database
In this paper we conducted a detailed analysis of Japan's TFP growth by making use of the Japan Industrial Productivity Database (the JIP Database) which we have recently completed. We got the following results. 1.After taking account of the quality of labor and the capacity utilization rate we found the decline in TFP growth at the macro-level from the 1980s to the 1990s not to be so great. Hayashi and Prescott (2002) seem to have overestimated the size of the TFP growth decline. 2.On the other hand, there was a substantial change in the pattern of sectoral TFP growth. The slowdown in TFP growth mainly occurred in the manufacturing sector. In contrast, TFP growth in the non-manufacturing sectors accelerated during the 1990s. 3.In the 1990s, substantial deregulations were accomplished in non-manufacturing industries, especially in communication, wholesale and retail trade, and finance, insurance and real estate, and this change seems to have contributed to the acceleration of TFP growth in these industries. But we should also note that, compared with other developed countries, Japan's TFP growth in the non-manufacturing sector is still quite low. 4.Regarding the manufacturing sector in the 1990s, the following three factors seem to have contributed to the low level of TFP growth. First, new entries were very limited. Secondly, the exit effect was negative, that is, the average TFP level of exiting firms was higher than that of staying firms. Thirdly, the reallocation effect of resources was small.
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