Physical and Human Capital Deepening and New Trade Patterns in Japan
This paper investigates the deepening of the international division of labor and its effect on factor intensities in Japan, mainly focusing on the manufacturing sector. In the first half of the paper, we analyze the factor contents of trade and find that Japan's factor content net-exports of capital and non-production labor grew rapidly while net-exports of production workers fell by a large amount during the period from 1980-2000. Interestingly, the decline in the factor content of net-exports of production workers was almost entirely caused by Japan's trade with China and Hong Kong. According to our decomposition analysis, however, most of the macro-economic change in the capital-labor ratio and the change in the skilled-labor ratio is attributable to a within-industry'shift rather than a between-industry' shift. Although we clearly see a drastic increase in VIIT and outsourcing to foreign countries, particularly to Asian countries, our empirical analysis provides only weak evidence that the deepening international division of labor contributes to changes in factor intensities in each industry. Our results suggest that specialization in the export of skilled-labor-intensive products may have contributed to the increase in the relative demand for skilled (professional, technical, managerial, and administrative) labor within industry. However, our results suggest that changes in trade patterns (specialization in capital-intensive production) cannot explain the rapid growth of capital-labor ratios in Japan.
|Date of creation:||Jan 2004|
|Publication status:||published as Physical and Human Capital Deepening and New Trade Patterns in Japan , Keiko Ito, Kyoji Fukao. in International Trade in East Asia, NBER-East Asia Seminar on Economics, Volume 14 , Ito and Rose. 2005|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: National Bureau of Economic Research, 1050 Massachusetts Avenue Cambridge, MA 02138, U.S.A.|
Web page: http://www.nber.org
More information through EDIRC
References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Eli Berman & John Bound & Zvi Griliches, 1994. "Changes in the Demand for Skilled Labor within U. S. Manufacturing: Evidence from the Annual Survey of Manufactures," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 109(2), pages 367-397.
- Hijzen, Alexander & Görg, Holger & Hine, Robert C., 2003. "International Fragmentation and Relative Wages in the UK," IZA Discussion Papers 717, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Falvey, Rodney E., 1981. "Commercial policy and intra-industry trade," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 11(4), pages 495-511, November.
- Robert C. Feenstra & Gordon H. Hanson, 1995.
"Foreign Investment, Outsourcing and Relative Wages,"
NBER Working Papers
5121, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Feenstra, R.C. & Hanson, G.H., 1995. "Foreign Investment, Outsourcing and Relative Wages," Papers 95-14, California Davis - Institute of Governmental Affairs.
- Feenstra, R.C. & Hanson, G.H., 1995. "Foreign Investment, Outsourcing and Relative Wages," Department of Economics 95-14, California Davis - Department of Economics.
- Jeffrey D. Sachs & Howard J. Shatz, 1994. "Trade and Jobs in Manufacturing," Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, Economic Studies Program, The Brookings Institution, vol. 25(1), pages 1-84.
- Lionel Fontagné & Michaël Freudenberg & Nicolas Peridy, 1997. "Trade Patterns Inside the Single Market," Working Papers 1997-07, CEPII research center.
- Dale W. Jorgenson & Mun S. Ho & Kevin J. Stiroh, 2005.
"Growth of U.S. Industries and Investments in Information Technology and Higher Education,"
in: Measuring Capital in the New Economy, pages 403-478
National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Dale Jorgenson & Mun Ho & Kevin Stiroh, 2003. "Growth of US Industries and Investments in Information Technology and Higher Education," Economic Systems Research, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 15(3), pages 279-325.
- Robert C. Feenstra & Gordon H. Hanson, 1999. "The Impact of Outsourcing and High-Technology Capital on Wages: Estimates For the United States, 1979–1990," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 114(3), pages 907-940.
- Kyoji Fukao & Tomohiko Inui & Hiroki Kawai & Tsutomu Miyagawa, 2004.
"Sectoral Productivity and Economic Growth in Japan, 1970-98: An Empirical Analysis Based on the JIP Database,"
Hi-Stat Discussion Paper Series
d03-19, Institute of Economic Research, Hitotsubashi University.
- Kyoji Fukao & Tomohiko Inui & Hiroki Kawai & Tsutomu Miyagawa, 2004. "Sectoral Productivity and Economic Growth in Japan, 1970-98: An Empirical Analysis Based on the JIP Database," NBER Chapters, in: Growth and Productivity in East Asia, NBER-East Asia Seminar on Economics, Volume 13, pages 177-228 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- FUKAO Kyoji & INUI Tomohiko & KAWAI Hiroki & MIYAGAWA Tsutomu, 2003. "Sectoral Productivity and Economic Growth in Japan 1970-98: An Empirical Analysis Based on the JIP Database," ESRI Discussion paper series 067, Economic and Social Research Institute (ESRI).
- Fukao, Kyoji & Ishido, Hikari & Ito, Keiko, 2003.
"Vertical Intra-Industry Trade and Foreign Direct Investment in East Asia,"
Discussion Paper Series
a434, Institute of Economic Research, Hitotsubashi University.
- Fukao, Kyoji & Ishido, Hikari & Ito, Keiko, 2003. "Vertical intra-industry trade and foreign direct investment in East Asia," Journal of the Japanese and International Economies, Elsevier, vol. 17(4), pages 468-506, December.
- Kyoji Fukao & Hikari Ishido & Keiko Ito, 2003. "Vertical Intra-Industry Trade and Foreign Direct Investment in East Asia," Discussion papers 03001, Research Institute of Economy, Trade and Industry (RIETI).
- Davis, Donald R. & Weinstein, David E., 2003. "Why countries trade: Insights from firm-level data," Journal of the Japanese and International Economies, Elsevier, vol. 17(4), pages 432-447, December.
- Greenaway, David & Hine, Robert C & Milner, Chris, 1995. "Vertical and Horizontal Intra-industry Trade: A Cross Industry Analysis for the United Kingdom," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 105(433), pages 1505-18, November.
- Feenstra, Robert C & Hanson, Gordon H, 1996.
"Globalization, Outsourcing, and Wage Inequality,"
American Economic Review,
American Economic Association, vol. 86(2), pages 240-45, May.
- Hak K. Pyo & Kwanghee Nam, 1999. "A Test of the Convergence Hypothesis by Rates of Return to Capital: Evidence from OECD Countries," CIRJE F-Series CIRJE-F-51, CIRJE, Faculty of Economics, University of Tokyo.
- Gordon H. Hanson & Robert C. Feenstra, 2000. "Aggregation Bias in the Factor Content of Trade: Evidence from U.S. Manufacturing," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 90(2), pages 155-160, May.
- Dale W. Jorgenson & Kazuyuki Motohashi, 2003. "Economic Growth of Japan and the United States in the Information Age," Discussion papers 03015, Research Institute of Economy, Trade and Industry (RIETI).
- Robert Feenstra & Gordon Hanson, 2001. "Global Production Sharing and Rising Inequality: A Survey of Trade and Wages," NBER Working Papers 8372, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Jose Manuel Campa & Linda S. Goldberg, 1997. "The evolving external orientation of manufacturing: a profile of four countries," Economic Policy Review, Federal Reserve Bank of New York, issue Jul, pages 53-81.
- Katz, Lawrence F. & Revenga, Ana L., 1989. "Changes in the structure of wages: The United States vs Japan," Journal of the Japanese and International Economies, Elsevier, vol. 3(4), pages 522-553, December.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:10209. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: ()
If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.
If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.
If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.
Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.