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Animal Spirits in Entrepreneurial Innovation: Theory and Evidence

  • Angela Cipollone


    (Department of Economics and Finance, LUISS Guido Carli University)

  • Paolo E. Giordani


    (Department of Economics and Finance, LUISS Guido Carli University)

This paper proposes and empirically tests a theory of entrepreneurial innovation in order to explain its high degree of concentration in space and time. In the model, a successful entrepreneurial project is the result of a search and matching process between entrepreneurs looking for funds and capitalists looking for new ideas to finance. The resulting strategic complementarity between them gives rise to a multiplier effect, whereby any exogenous shock has a magnified effect on the process of innovation. Moreover, if complementarity is sufficiently strong, multiple equilibria arise, which are characterized by different levels of entrepreneurial activity. Using data from the European and the US business angels markets for the period 1996-2010, we show that (i) a complementarity exists between business angels and the entrepreneurial projects submitted to them, and that (ii) the result of multiple equilibria is empirically plausible.

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Paper provided by Dipartimento di Economia e Finanza, LUISS Guido Carli in its series Working Papers CELEG with number 1201.

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Date of creation: 2012
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:lui:celegw:1201
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  1. Keuschnigg, Christian, 2003. "Optimal Public Policy for Venture Capital Backed Innovation," CEPR Discussion Papers 3850, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  2. Adam B. Jaffe & Manuel Trajtenberg & Rebecca Henderson, 1993. "Geographic Localization of Knowledge Spillovers as Evidenced by Patent Citations," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 108(3), pages 577-598.
  3. P. Diamond, 1980. "Aggregate Demand Management in Search Equilibrium," Working papers 268, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Department of Economics.
  4. Michelacci, C. & Suarez, J., 2000. "Business Creation and the Stock Market," Papers 0009, Centro de Estudios Monetarios Y Financieros-.
  5. Jonathan Chiu & Cesaire Meh & Randall Wright, 2011. "Innovation and Growth with Financial, and other, Frictions," NBER Working Papers 17512, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  6. Henry Chen & Paul Gompers & Anna Kovner & Josh Lerner, 2009. "Buy Local? The Geography of Successful and Unsuccessful Venture Capital Expansion," NBER Working Papers 15102, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  7. Warren, Ronald Jr., 1996. "Returns to scale in a matching model of the labor market," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 50(1), pages 135-142, January.
  8. Robin Boadway & Oana Secrieru & Marianne Vigneault, 2005. "A Search Model of Venture Capital, Entrepreneurship, and Unemployment," Staff Working Papers 05-24, Bank of Canada.
  9. Russell Cooper & Andrew John, 1988. "Coordinating Coordination Failures in Keynesian Models," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 103(3), pages 441-463.
  10. Silveira, Rafael & Wright, Randall, 2010. "Search and the market for ideas," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 145(4), pages 1550-1573, July.
  11. Lawrence H. Summers, 1988. "Relative Wages, Efficiency Wages, and Keynesian Unemployment," NBER Working Papers 2590, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  12. Audretsch, David B & Feldman, Maryann P, 1996. "R&D Spillovers and the Geography of Innovation and Production," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 86(3), pages 630-40, June.
  13. Kiyotaki, Nobuhiro & Wright, Randall, 1993. "A Search-Theoretic Approach to Monetary Economics," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 83(1), pages 63-77, March.
  14. Christopher A. Pissarides, 2000. "Equilibrium Unemployment Theory, 2nd Edition," MIT Press Books, The MIT Press, edition 1, volume 1, number 0262161877, December.
  15. Vincenzo Verardi & Christophe Croux, 2009. "Robust regression in Stata," Stata Journal, StataCorp LP, vol. 9(3), pages 439-453, September.
  16. Kenneth Arrow, 1962. "Economic Welfare and the Allocation of Resources for Invention," NBER Chapters, in: The Rate and Direction of Inventive Activity: Economic and Social Factors, pages 609-626 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  17. P. A. Diamond, 1982. "Money in Search Equilibrium," Working papers 297, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Department of Economics.
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