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The Effects of Longer School Days on Mothers' Labor Force Participation

Author

Listed:
  • Berthelon, Matias

    () (Universidad Adolfo Ibañez)

  • Kruger, Diana

    () (Universidad Adolfo Ibañez)

  • Oyarzún, Melanie

    () (Universidad Catolica de Valparaiso, Chile)

Abstract

Lack of adequate childcare is a main reason women cite for not participating in the labor force. We investigate the effect of a reform that lengthened school schedules from half to full days in Chile – essentially providing zero-cost childcare – on different maternal labor participation outcomes. We identify the effect of the policy from its implementation across municipalities over time and rule out alternative explanations, finding evidence of positive and important effects on participation and more permanent attachment to the labor force. Additionally, we also find results are driven by the provision of full day schooling in 1st and 2nd grades.

Suggested Citation

  • Berthelon, Matias & Kruger, Diana & Oyarzún, Melanie, 2015. "The Effects of Longer School Days on Mothers' Labor Force Participation," IZA Discussion Papers 9212, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  • Handle: RePEc:iza:izadps:dp9212
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    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Berthelon, Matias E. & Kruger, Diana I., 2011. "Risky behavior among youth: Incapacitation effects of school on adolescent motherhood and crime in Chile," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 95(1), pages 41-53.
    2. Berlinski, Samuel & Galiani, Sebastian, 2007. "The effect of a large expansion of pre-primary school facilities on preschool attendance and maternal employment," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 14(3), pages 665-680, June.
    3. Dante Contreras & Paulina Sepúlveda C. & Soledad Cabrera, 2010. "The effects of lengthening the school day on female labor supply: Evidence from a quasi-experiment in Chile," Working Papers wp323, University of Chile, Department of Economics.
    4. Michael Baker & Jonathan Gruber & Kevin Milligan, 2008. "Universal Child Care, Maternal Labor Supply, and Family Well-Being," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 116(4), pages 709-745, August.
    5. Esther Duflo, 2001. "Schooling and Labor Market Consequences of School Construction in Indonesia: Evidence from an Unusual Policy Experiment," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 91(4), pages 795-813, September.
    6. Jonah B. Gelbach, 2002. "Public Schooling for Young Children and Maternal Labor Supply," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 92(1), pages 307-322, March.
    7. Michael Lokshin, 2004. "Household Childcare Choices and Women’s Work Behavior in Russia," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 39(4).
    8. Daniela Del Boca, 2002. "The effect of child care and part time opportunities on participation and fertility decisions in Italy," Journal of Population Economics, Springer;European Society for Population Economics, vol. 15(3), pages 549-573.
    9. Borjas, George J. & Bronars, Stephen G. & Trejo, Stephen J., 1992. "Self-selection and internal migration in the United States," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 32(2), pages 159-185, September.
    10. Lisa M. Powell, 2002. "Joint Labor Supply and Childcare Choice Decisions of Married Mothers," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 37(1), pages 106-128.
    11. Maria Donovan Fitzpatrick, 2012. "Revising Our Thinking About the Relationship Between Maternal Labor Supply and Preschool," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 47(3), pages 583-612.
    12. Maria Donovan Fitzpatrick, 2010. "Preschoolers Enrolled and Mothers at Work? The Effects of Universal Prekindergarten," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 28(1), pages 51-85, January.
    13. Pierre Lefebvre & Philip Merrigan, 2008. "Child-Care Policy and the Labor Supply of Mothers with Young Children: A Natural Experiment from Canada," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 26(3), pages 519-548, July.
    14. Alejandra Mizala & Pilar Romaguera, 2000. "School Performance and Choice: The Chilean Experience," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 35(2), pages 392-417.
    15. Chumacero, Rómulo A. & Gómez, Daniel & Paredes, Ricardo D., 2011. "I would walk 500 miles (if it paid): Vouchers and school choice in Chile," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 30(5), pages 1103-1114, October.
    16. Bellei, Cristián, 2009. "Does lengthening the school day increase students' academic achievement? Results from a natural experiment in Chile," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 28(5), pages 629-640, October.
    17. Berthelon, Matias E. & Kruger, Diana I., 2011. "Risky behavior among youth: Incapacitation effects of school on adolescent motherhood and crime in Chile," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 95(1-2), pages 41-53, February.
    18. Elizabeth U. Cascio, 2009. "Maternal Labor Supply and the Introduction of Kindergartens into American Public Schools," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 44(1).
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Mike Brewer & Sarah Cattan & Claire Crawford & Birgitta Rabe, 2016. "Does more free childcare help parents work more?," IFS Working Papers W16/22, Institute for Fiscal Studies.
    2. Brewer, Mike & Cattan, Sarah & Crawford, Claire & Rabe, Birgitta, 2016. "Free Childcare and Parents' Labour Supply: Is More Better?," IZA Discussion Papers 10415, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    3. Janina Nemitz, 2015. "The effect of all-day primary school programs on maternal labor supply," ECON - Working Papers 213, Department of Economics - University of Zurich.
    4. Nikki Shure, "undated". "School Hours and Maternal Labour Supply: A Natural Experiment from Germany," DoQSS Working Papers 16-13, Department of Quantitative Social Science - UCL Institute of Education, University College London.
    5. Ludovica Gambaro & Jan Marcus & Frauke H. Peter, 2016. "School Entry, Afternoon Care and Mothers' Labour Supply," Discussion Papers of DIW Berlin 1622, DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research.
    6. repec:udc:esteco:v:44:y:2017:i:1:p:5-32 is not listed on IDEAS
    7. Nemitz, Janina, 2016. "The Effect of All-Day Primary School Programs on Maternal Labor Supply," Annual Conference 2016 (Augsburg): Demographic Change 145528, Verein für Socialpolitik / German Economic Association.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    full day schooling; primary education; female labor participation; education reform; Chile;

    JEL classification:

    • H4 - Public Economics - - Publicly Provided Goods
    • J2 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor
    • J4 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Particular Labor Markets
    • I2 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Education

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