IDEAS home Printed from
MyIDEAS: Login to save this paper or follow this series

Liability-of-Foreignness Effects on Job Success of Immigrant Job Seekers

  • Fang, Tony


    (Memorial University of Newfoundland)

  • Samnani, Al-Karim


    (York University, Canada)

  • Novicevic, Milorad M.


    (University of Mississippi, Ole Miss)

  • Bing, Mark N.


    (University of Mississippi, Ole Miss)

We examined the liability-of-foreignness (LOF) hypothesis for immigrant and native job seekers by analyzing a national dataset that tracks their use of job-search methods and their associated job outcomes in the Canadian labor market. To our knowledge this is the first empirical test of LOF at the individual-level while controlling for variables at multiple levels. We found support for LOF when job applicants used the rich media job-search methods of social networks and recruitment agencies, but not when they used the lean media of newspaper ads and the internet. Study limitations, implications, and future research are discussed.

If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.

File URL:
Download Restriction: no

Paper provided by Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA) in its series IZA Discussion Papers with number 6742.

in new window

Length: 46 pages
Date of creation: Jul 2012
Date of revision:
Publication status: published in: Journal of World Business (Columbia); 2013, 48 (1), 98–109
Handle: RePEc:iza:izadps:dp6742
Contact details of provider: Postal: IZA, P.O. Box 7240, D-53072 Bonn, Germany
Phone: +49 228 3894 223
Fax: +49 228 3894 180
Web page:

Order Information: Postal: IZA, Margard Ody, P.O. Box 7240, D-53072 Bonn, Germany

References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:

as in new window
  1. Andrea Weber & Helmut Mahringer, 2008. "Choice and success of job search methods," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 35(1), pages 153-178, August.
  2. Susan N. Houseman & Arne L. Kalleberg & George A. Erickcek, . "The Role of Temporary Agency Employment in Tight Labor Markets," Upjohn Working Papers and Journal Articles snhakge2003, W.E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research.
  3. Jan Johanson & Jan-Erik Vahlne, 2009. "The Uppsala internationalization process model revisited: From liability of foreignness to liability of outsidership," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 40(9), pages 1411-1431, December.
  4. Kahanec, Martin & Zaiceva, Anzelika, 2008. "Labor Market Outcomes of Immigrants and Non-Citizens in the EU: An East-West Comparison," IZA Discussion Papers 3420, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  5. Joseph Daniels & Marc Ruhr, 2003. "The determinants of immigration-policy preferences in advanced economies: A cross-country study," Atlantic Economic Journal, International Atlantic Economic Society, vol. 31(2), pages 146-158, June.
  6. Paul Frijters & Michael A. Shields & Stephen Wheatley Price, 2005. "Job Search Methods and Their Success: A Comparison of Immigrants and Natives in the UK," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 115(507), pages F359-F376, November.
  7. Paul W. Miller & Barry R. Chiswick, 2002. "Immigrant earnings: Language skills, linguistic concentrations and the business cycle," Journal of Population Economics, Springer, vol. 15(1), pages 31-57.
  8. Susan N. Houseman, . "Why Employers Use Flexible Staffing Arrangements: Evidence from an Establishment Survey," Upjohn Working Papers and Journal Articles snh2001, W.E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research.
  9. Jon M Shapiro & Julie L Ozanne & Bige Saatcioglu, 2008. "An interpretive examination of the development of cultural sensitivity in international business," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 39(1), pages 71-87, January.
  10. David E. Bloom & Gilles Grenier & Morley Gunderson, 1994. "The Changing Labor Market Position of Canadian Immigrants," NBER Working Papers 4672, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  11. Casey Warman, 2007. "Ethnic enclaves and immigrant earnings growth," Canadian Journal of Economics, Canadian Economics Association, vol. 40(2), pages 401-422, May.
  12. Böheim, René & Taylor, Mark P., 2001. "Job search methods, intensity and success in Britain in the 1990s," ISER Working Paper Series 2001-07, Institute for Social and Economic Research.
  13. Steven Wald & Tony Fang, 2008. "Overeducated Immigrants in the Canadian Labour Market: Evidence from the Workplace and Employee Survey," Canadian Public Policy, University of Toronto Press, vol. 34(4), pages 457-480, December.
  14. Peter Kuhn & Mikal Skuterud, 2004. "Internet Job Search and Unemployment Durations," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 94(1), pages 218-232, March.
  15. George J. Borjas, 2003. "The Labor Demand Curve is Downward Sloping: Reexamining the Impact of Immigration on the Labor Market," NBER Working Papers 9755, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  16. George J. Borjas, 1994. "The Economics of Immigration," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 32(4), pages 1667-1717, December.
  17. Mary L. Grant, 1999. "Evidence of New Immigrant Assimilation in Canada," Canadian Journal of Economics, Canadian Economics Association, vol. 32(4), pages 930-955, August.
  18. Tony Fang & Fiona MacPhail, 2008. "Transitions from Temporary to Permanent Work in Canada: Who Makes the Transition and Why?," Social Indicators Research, Springer, vol. 88(1), pages 51-74, August.
  19. Amelie F. Constant & Martin Kahanec & Klaus F. Zimmermann, 2009. "Attitudes towards immigrants, other integration barriers, and their veracity," International Journal of Manpower, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 30(1/2), pages 5-14, May.
  20. Abdurrahman Aydemir & Mikal Skuterud, 2004. "Explaining the Deteriorating Entry Earnings of Canada’s Immigrant," Labor and Demography 0409006, EconWPA.
  21. repec:oup:qjecon:v:118:y:2003:i:4:p:1335-1374 is not listed on IDEAS
  22. Tony Fang & Jelena Zikic & Milorad M. Novicevic, 2009. "Career success of immigrant professionals: stock and flow of their career capital," International Journal of Manpower, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 30(5), pages 472-488, September.
  23. Borjas, George J, 1985. "Assimilation, Changes in Cohort Quality, and the Earnings of Immigrants," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 3(4), pages 463-89, October.
  24. Eric G. Moore & Michael A. Pacey, 2003. "Changing Income Inequality and Immigration in Canada, 1980­1995," Canadian Public Policy, University of Toronto Press, vol. 29(1), pages 33-51, March.
  25. Daneshvary, Nasser, et al, 1992. "Job Search and Immigrant Assimilation: An Earnings Frontier Approach," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 74(3), pages 482-92, August.
  26. Abdurrahman Aydemir & Mikal Skuterud, 2005. "Explaining the deteriorating entry earnings of Canada's immigrant cohorts, 1966 - 2000," Canadian Journal of Economics, Canadian Economics Association, vol. 38(2), pages 641-672, May.
  27. Morissette, Rene & Frenette, Marc, 2003. "Will They Ever Converge? Earnings of Immigrants and Canadian-born Workers over the Last Two Decades," Analytical Studies Branch Research Paper Series 2003215e, Statistics Canada, Analytical Studies Branch.
  28. Tony Fang & John S. Heywood, 2010. "Immigration, Ethnic Wage Differentials and Output Pay in Canada," British Journal of Industrial Relations, London School of Economics, vol. 48(1), pages 109-130, 03.
  29. Joardar, Arpita & Kostova, Tatiana & Ravlin, Elizabeth C., 2007. "An experimental study of the acceptance of a foreign newcomer into a workgroup," Journal of International Management, Elsevier, vol. 13(4), pages 513-537, December.
  30. Harvey, Michael & Novicevic, Milorad M. & Buckley, M. Ronald & Fung, Helen, 2005. "Reducing inpatriate managers' 'Liability of Foreignness' by addressing stigmatization and stereotype threats," Journal of World Business, Elsevier, vol. 40(3), pages 267-280, August.
Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

This item is not listed on Wikipedia, on a reading list or among the top items on IDEAS.

When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:iza:izadps:dp6742. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Mark Fallak)

If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.

If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.

If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

This information is provided to you by IDEAS at the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis using RePEc data.