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The Employment of Mothers: Recent Developments and their Determinants in East and West Germany

  • Hanel, Barbara

    ()

    (Melbourne Institute of Applied Economic and Social Research)

  • Riphahn, Regina T.

    ()

    (University of Erlangen-Nuremberg)

We apply German Mikrozensus data for the period 1996 to 2004 to investigate the employment status of mothers. Specifically, we ask whether there are behavioral differences between mothers in East and West Germany, whether these differences disappear over time, and whether there are differences in the developments for high vs. low and medium skilled females. We find substantial differences in the employment behavior of East and West German mothers. German family policy sets incentives particularly for low income mothers not to return to the labor market after birth. East German mothers' employment outcomes matches that expected based on these policy incentives: over time East German mothers with low earnings potentials appear to adopt West German low employment patterns.

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Paper provided by Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA) in its series IZA Discussion Papers with number 5752.

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Length: 35 pages
Date of creation: May 2011
Date of revision:
Publication status: published in: Jahrbücher für Nationalökonomie und Statistik, 2012, 232 (2), 146-176
Handle: RePEc:iza:izadps:dp5752
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References listed on IDEAS
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  1. Paul Gregg & Maria Gutierrez-Domenech & Jane Waldfogel, 2003. "The Employment of Married Mothers in Great Britain: 1974-2000," CEP Discussion Papers dp0596, Centre for Economic Performance, LSE.
  2. Hunt, Jennifer, 1998. "The Transition in East Germany: When is a Ten Point Fall in the Gender Wage Gap Bad News?," CEPR Discussion Papers 1805, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  3. Gustafsson, Siv S, et al, 1996. "Women's Labor Force Transitions in Connection with Childbirth: A Panel Data Comparison between Germany, Sweden and Great Britain," Journal of Population Economics, Springer, vol. 9(3), pages 223-46, August.
  4. Helene Dearing & Helmut Hofer & Christine Lietz & Rudolf Winter-Ebmer & Katharina Wrohlich, 2007. "Why Are Mothers Working Longer Hours in Austria than in Germany?: A Comparative Micro Simulation Analysis," Discussion Papers of DIW Berlin 695, DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research.
  5. Jacob Klerman & Arleen Leibowitz, 1999. "Job continuity among new mothers," Demography, Springer, vol. 36(2), pages 145-155, May.
  6. Wen-Jui Han & Christopher Ruhm & Jane Waldfogel & Elizabeth Washbrook, 2009. "Public Policies and Women's Employment after Childbearing," NBER Working Papers 14660, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  7. Annette Bergemann & Regina T. Riphahn, 2009. "Female Labor Supply and Parental Leave Benefits: The Causal Effect of Paying Higher Transfers for a Shorter Period of Time," SOEPpapers on Multidisciplinary Panel Data Research 161, DIW Berlin, The German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP).
  8. Simon Burgess & Paul Gregg & Carol Propper & Elizabeth Washbrook & ALSPAC Study Team, 2002. "Maternity Rights and Mothers' Return to Work," The Centre for Market and Public Organisation 02/055, Department of Economics, University of Bristol, UK.
  9. Beate Grundig, 2008. "Why is the share of women willing to work in East Germany larger than in West Germany? A logit model of extensive labour supply decision," Ifo Working Paper Series Ifo Working Paper No. 56, Ifo Institute for Economic Research at the University of Munich.
  10. Schönberg, Uta & Ludsteck, Johannes, 2007. "Maternity Leave Legislation, Female Labor Supply, and the Family Wage Gap," IZA Discussion Papers 2699, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  11. Geyer, Johannes & Steiner, Viktor, 2007. "Short-Run and Long-Term Effects of Childbirth on Mothers’ Employment and Working Hours Across Institutional Regimes: An Empirical Analysis Based on the European Community Household Panel," IZA Discussion Papers 2693, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  12. Wrohlich, Katharina, 2005. "The Excess Demand for Subsidized Child Care in Germany," IZA Discussion Papers 1515, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  13. Lisa Barrow, 1998. "An analysis of women's return-to-work decisions following first birth," Working Paper Series WP-98-9, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago.
  14. Wen-Jui Han & Christopher Ruhm & Jane Waldfogel, 2009. "Parental leave policies and parents' employment and leave-taking," Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 28(1), pages 29-54.
  15. Michael Baker & Kevin Milligan, 2008. "How Does Job-Protected Maternity Leave Affect Mothers' Employment?," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 26(4), pages 655-691, October.
  16. repec:zbw:rwirep:0097 is not listed on IDEAS
  17. Bredtmann, Julia & Kluve, Jochen & Schaffner, Sandra, 2009. "Women's Fertility and Employment Decisions under Two Political Systems - Comparing East and West Germany before Reunification," Ruhr Economic Papers 149, Rheinisch-Westfälisches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (RWI), Ruhr-University Bochum, TU Dortmund University, University of Duisburg-Essen.
  18. Christopher J. Ruhm, 1996. "The Economic Consequences of Parental Leave Mandates: Lessons from Europe," NBER Working Papers 5688, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  19. Marcus Tamm, 2010. "Child Benefit Reform and Labor Market Participation," Journal of Economics and Statistics (Jahrbuecher fuer Nationaloekonomie und Statistik), Justus-Liebig University Giessen, Department of Statistics and Economics, vol. 230(3), pages 313-327, June.
  20. repec:zbw:rwirep:0149 is not listed on IDEAS
  21. Robert Orlowski & Regina T. Riphahn, 2009. "The East German Wage Structure after Transition," Working Papers 073, Bavarian Graduate Program in Economics (BGPE).
  22. Lawrence M. Berger & Jane Waldfogel, 2004. "Maternity leave and the employment of new mothers in the United States," Journal of Population Economics, Springer, vol. 17(2), pages 331-349, 06.
  23. Bernd Fitzenberger & Gaby Wunderlich, 2004. "The Changing Life Cycle Pattern In Female Employment: A Comparison Of Germany And The Uk," Scottish Journal of Political Economy, Scottish Economic Society, vol. 51(3), pages 302-328, 08.
  24. Jan Ondrich & C. Spiess & Qing Yang & Gert Wagner, 2003. "The Liberalization of Maternity Leave Policy and the Return to Work after Childbirth in Germany," Review of Economics of the Household, Springer, vol. 1(1), pages 77-110, January.
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