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The Employment of Mothers: Recent Developments and their Determinants in East and West Germany

  • Hanel, Barbara

    ()

    (Melbourne Institute of Applied Economic and Social Research)

  • Riphahn, Regina T.

    ()

    (University of Erlangen-Nuremberg)

We apply German Mikrozensus data for the period 1996 to 2004 to investigate the employment status of mothers. Specifically, we ask whether there are behavioral differences between mothers in East and West Germany, whether these differences disappear over time, and whether there are differences in the developments for high vs. low and medium skilled females. We find substantial differences in the employment behavior of East and West German mothers. German family policy sets incentives particularly for low income mothers not to return to the labor market after birth. East German mothers' employment outcomes matches that expected based on these policy incentives: over time East German mothers with low earnings potentials appear to adopt West German low employment patterns.

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Paper provided by Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA) in its series IZA Discussion Papers with number 5752.

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Length: 35 pages
Date of creation: May 2011
Date of revision:
Publication status: published in: Jahrbücher für Nationalökonomie und Statistik, 2012, 232 (2), 146-176
Handle: RePEc:iza:izadps:dp5752
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  1. Bergemann, Annette & Riphahn, Regina T., 2009. "Female labor supply and parental leave benefits – the causal effect of paying higher transfers for a shorter period of time," Working Paper Series 2009:5, IFAU - Institute for Evaluation of Labour Market and Education Policy.
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  6. Dearing, Helene & Hofer, Helmut & Lietz, Christine & Winter-Ebmer, Rudolf & Wrohlich, Katharina, 2007. "Why Are Mothers Working Longer Hours in Austria than in Germany? A Comparative Micro Simulation Analysis," IZA Discussion Papers 2845, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  7. Wrohlich, Katharina, 2005. "The Excess Demand for Subsidized Child Care in Germany," IZA Discussion Papers 1515, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
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  13. Barrow, Lisa, 1999. "An Analysis of Women's Return-to-Work Decisions following First Birth," Economic Inquiry, Western Economic Association International, vol. 37(3), pages 432-51, July.
  14. Beate Grundig, 2008. "Why is the share of women willing to work in East Germany larger than in West Germany? A logit model of extensive labour supply decision," Ifo Working Paper Series Ifo Working Paper No. 56, Ifo Institute - Leibniz Institute for Economic Research at the University of Munich.
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  16. Jan Ondrich & C. Spiess & Qing Yang & Gert Wagner, 2003. "The Liberalization of Maternity Leave Policy and the Return to Work after Childbirth in Germany," Review of Economics of the Household, Springer, vol. 1(1), pages 77-110, January.
  17. Paul Gregg & Maria Gutiérrez-Domènech & Jane Waldfogel, 2003. "The employment of married mothers in Great Britain: 1974-2000," LSE Research Online Documents on Economics 20014, London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library.
  18. Michael Baker & Kevin Milligan, 2008. "How Does Job-Protected Maternity Leave Affect Mothers' Employment?," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 26(4), pages 655-691, October.
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  20. Bredtmann, Julia & Kluve, Jochen & Schaffner, Sandra, 2009. "Women's Fertility and Employment Decisions under Two Political Systems - Comparing East and West Germany before Reunification," Ruhr Economic Papers 149, RWI - Leibniz-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung, Ruhr-University Bochum, TU Dortmund University, University of Duisburg-Essen.
  21. Geyer, Johannes & Steiner, Viktor, 2007. "Short-Run and Long-Term Effects of Childbirth on Mothers’ Employment and Working Hours Across Institutional Regimes: An Empirical Analysis Based on the European Community Household Panel," IZA Discussion Papers 2693, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
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